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Przemysław Żywiczyński and Sławomir Wacewicz

This book discusses the scope and development of the science of language evolution – a newly emergent field that investigates the origin of language. The book is addressed to audiences who are not professionally involved in science and presents the problems of language origins together with introductory information on such topics as the theory of evolution, elements of linguistic theory, the neural infrastructure of language or the signalling theory.

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Genustransfer durch «Thinking for Speaking»

Kognitive Muster und ihre Bedeutung für den DaF-Unterricht

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Katharina Hirt

Wie wirken sich kognitive ‚Thinking for Speaking’ Muster auf das Fremdsprachenlernen aus? Dieser Frage geht die Autorin mithilfe einer empirischen Untersuchung an deutschen Muttersprachlern nach, die Genustransfer anhand der Pronominalisierung und Kategorisierung von belebten, nicht-menschlichen Referenten (Tiernomen) beim Sprechen des Englischen erforscht. Chinesische und englische Muttersprachler dienen als Vergleichsgruppe. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Genustransfer durch eine unbewusste Fehlinterpretation des Genus zum Sexus ausgelöst wird. Die Existenz solcher kognitiven Muster bedeutet, dass das Erlernen einer neuen Sprache das Erlernen neuer Muster erfordert. Die Autorin folgert, dass die Genusvermittlung einen höheren Stellenwert im DaF-Unterricht erhalten sollte, um die kognitive Umstrukturierung zu fördern.

Open access

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Edited by Susanne Fuchs, Joanne Cleland and Amélie Rochet-Capellan

Learning and memory processes are basic features of human existence. They allow us to (un)consciously adapt to changes in our social and physical environment in a variety of ways and may have been a precursor for survival in human evolution. Through several reviews and original work the book focuses on three key topics that enhanced our understanding of the topic in the last twenty years: first, the role of real-time auditory feedback in learning, second, the role of motor aspects for learning and memory, and third, representations in memory and the role of sleep on memory consolidation.

The electronic version of this book is freely available, thanks to the support of libraries working with Knowledge Unlatched. KU is a collaborative initiative designed to make high quality books Open Access for the public good. More information about the initiative and links to the Open Access version can be found at www.knowledgeunlatched.org

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Contents, Use, Usability

Dictionaries from the Perspective of a Translator and a Language Teacher

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Edited by Dorota Osuchowska and Lucyna Harmon

This book is directed at lexicographers and professionals in Translation Studies and English Language Teaching. Chapters by translation scholars alternate with chapters by teachers of English; within them, sections on the contents of the works discussed alternate with sections on their use and/or usability. Each of the chapters offers a glimpse of interesting research possibilities that practice raises, the issues we need to investigate and explain, as well as how to turn some of this research into practical action.

The book proves that dictionaries continue to play an important part in our daily and academic lives, though it is not always clear how they should fit into the overall pattern of curriculum design, teaching materials or learning styles.

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Language and Belonging

Local Categories and Practices in a Guatemalan Highland Community

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Rita Vallentin

In this book, the author introduces belonging from a sociolinguistic perspective as a concept that is accomplished in interaction. Belonging can be expressed linguistically in social, spatial and temporal categories – indexing rootedness, groupness and cohesion. It can also be captured through shared linguistic practices within a group, e.g. collectively shared narrative practices. Using conversation analysis and an analysis of narrative as practice bolstered with ethnographic knowledge, the author shows how belonging is tied to locally contextualized use of deictics and to collectively shared narrations of the past in a Guatemalan community. The book examines the understudied phenomenon of belonging at the intersection of pragmatics and linguistic anthropology.

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Polish Translation Studies in Action

Concepts – Methodologies – Applications. A Reader

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Edited by Piotr de Bończa Bukowski and Magdalena Heydel

Translation Studies has been in action in the Polish humanities since 1930s. The book gathers the most important contributions from Polish translation scholars working in the context of Literary and Cultural Studies as well as Linguistics. The essays offer insights into the conceptualisation of translation, stylistics and poetics, history and anthropology of translation. Most of them are made available in English for the first time. The editors’ introduction provides a panoramic backdrop for concepts, methodologies and applications. As part of the tendency to enlarge Translation Studies and include new contexts into its mainstream, this reader gives an overview of a rich area of translation scholarship from the centre of Europe, a crossroads of influences and traditions.

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Translating Cultural Identity

French Translations of Australian Crime Fiction

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Sarah M. A. Reed

The genre of crime fiction – so often rooted in the details of a place, time and subculture – enjoys significant international popularity and provides readers with a unique opportunity to explore the different cultural identities represented in its texts. This book offers a convincing rationale to illustrate how crime fiction in translation can be especially productive when examining the projection of a specific cultural identity to a new, foreign readership. Focusing on the intercultural transcreation of Australian cultural identity for a new francophone readership, the book offers a comprehensive and accessible theme-based analysis highlighting how the choice of translation strategy can significantly affect representations of cultural identity. The author asks important questions about the compromises that are necessary in finding creative solutions to translation problems and discovers some unexpected and surprising consequences of the decisions made for the new readers who believe they are gaining insights into another culture through reading crime fiction in translation.
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Wojciech Wachowski

The general aim of this book is to contribute to a better understanding of metonymy, a phenomenon which still, despite the current upsurge in scholarly attention, remains puzzling in some respects. The theoretical framework of this book is provided by the school of thought commonly known as Cognitive Linguistics. The first part of the book analyses and develops various hypotheses concerning the nature of metonymy advanced in the literature to date. It presents numerous arguments in favour of the conceptual rather than purely linguistic basis of metonymy and shows that metonymy is a ubiquitous phenomenon not only in language but above all in thought. The second part contains a thorough analysis of the constraints to the scope of metonymy and discusses the differences between metonymy and other forms of so-called figurative language. The third part is devoted to the role and importance of metonymy in communication and focuses on the creative functions of metonymy, which have received surprisingly little scholarly attention to date, such as euphemism, vague language, and humour. The fourth part of this book is centred on some problematic issues concerning the distinction between metonymy, metaphor, and synecdoche.

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Cognition in context

New insights into language, culture and the mind

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Edited by Enrique Bernárdez, Joanna Jabłońska-Hood and Katarzyna Stadnik

As cognitive scientists continue to probe into the nature of the human mind, it is increasingly clear that research into cognition cannot be dissociated from the context in which our mental activity occurs. The papers collected in this book testify to the growing interest in adopting a broad characterisation of what counts as relevant context. The vices of seeking essences behind complex phenomena should not go unnoticed, the primary, and possibly the most crucial, downside of this approach being a reductionist treatment of the human mind. With this book, the authors want to show that humans are not merely brains, minds, speakers, learners, readers, etc., but, first and foremost, complex beings who communicate within and beyond the contexts of their own cultures.

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Metaphor and Senses

The Synamet Corpus: A Polish Resource for Synesthetic Metaphors

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Magdalena Zawisławska

The book deals with the synesthetic metaphors in Synamet – a semantically and grammatically annotated corpus. The texts included in the corpus are excerpted from blogs devoted to, among others, perfume, wine, beer, music, art, massage and wellness. The thesis presents a Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) and frame-based analysis of synesthetic metaphors in Polish. Using data from the corpus, the book provides ample empirical support for embodiment in metaphor and internal logic of mappings between frames. The study proposes new models of verbal synesthesia in the corpus and calls into question a universality of hierarchy of senses. This book should be of interest to researchers working within cognitive linguistics, in particular metaphor theory, frame semantics, corpus linguistics, and sensory science.