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English and French Online Comments

A Text Linguistic Comparison of Popular Science Magazines

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John Marcus Sommer

In recent years, text and media linguistics have focused on genres in the new media. This is almost always accompanied by the question of the establishment and development of such content. Due to the diversity of genres and their dynamic development one can speak of an almost inexhaustible field of research. The book is located in this field of research. Its goal is to examine the origin and nature of readers’ comments by readers of French and English popular science magazines. Media content is dissected by using text linguistic tools. Transmedial cultures are explored across time, platforms, languages, and editing houses.

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Schnittstellen der Germanistik

Festschrift für Hans Bickes

Edited by Janina Behr, François Conrad, Stephan Kornmesser and Kristin Tschernig

Die Festschrift zu Ehren von Hans Bickes vereint aktuelle Forschungen, die thematisch an die Schwerpunkte seines breiten akademischen Schaffens angelehnt sind. Die 15 Beiträge früherer KollegInnen und MitarbeiterInnen stammen aus den Bereichen »Bildungssprache und Sprache im Fach«, »Semiotik und Identität« sowie »Migration und Mehrsprachigkeit« und würdigen die bunte Themenpalette des Jubilars in Forschung und Lehre.

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Hanna Komorowska and Jaroslaw Krajka

The book aims to demonstrate the diverse shapes that foreign language teaching and learning can have in various educational contexts, in terms of age groups (children, adolescents and adults), learning purposes (general language instruction vs. language for specific purposes) and instructional paradigms (language-oriented, interaction-oriented and post-method approaches). Special attention is paid to such key concepts in language teaching as motivation, auto-nomy, evaluation and assessment. This book tries to merge the macroperspec-tive, founded on such aspects of language instruction as defining competence, setting aims and objectives, developing curricula, planning lessons and evaluating learners’ performance in general terms, with the microperspective of Poland as a place in which language instruction is run and whose specific problems are to be solved.
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Complexity, Efficiency, and Language Contact

Pronoun Omission in World Englishes

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Iván Tamaredo

The book provides an assessment of the contribution of pronoun omission to the complexity and efficiency of varieties of English and the influence of language contact on its attestation and pervasiveness. On the one hand, omitted pronouns result in simpler and more efficient structures, provided their antecedents are retrievable from the context. On the other hand, the choice between overt and omitted pronouns depends on several grammatical constraints, which in turn may entail an increase in system complexity. Two methodologically different but complementary case studies are presented, which contribute new findings to the literature at the crossroads of research on World Englishes, complexity, efficiency, and pronoun omission.

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Edited by Rudolf Muhr, Ildikó Vančo, István Kozmács and Máté Huber

This book comprises 19 chapters that deal with Hungarian as a pluricentric language in language and literature. It is the first comprehensive publication of its kind and It contains works on both the linguistic and literary aspects of the pluricentricity of the Hungarian language. The authors come from five countries: Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. They give an overview of the pluricentricity of Hungarian, its identity function and the many effects of the pluricentricity in terminology, toponyms and family names as well as about problems in language education. The pluricentricity of literary language and language contact is described in detail. This book is the ninth volume published by the “International Working Group on non-dominant varie-ties of pluricentric languages.”
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George Rick Welch

What is life? is a query that never dies… Most modern-day approaches to this enduring question attempt to define what life is, from the standpoint of science, philosophy, religion, medicine, etc. In this book, the conception of life in Western culture is explored through a host of words that has come down to us from antiquity. The author presents a flowing linguistic view of life from the distant past. The etymologic heritage is traced to ancient Greek – to the philosophical foundation of Western thinking. The author pursues a path into prehistory, looking at the development of words from roots in the Indo-European language family, which includes the classical languages of Greek and Latin, as well as English and many other Eurasian languages – ultimately, in the common ancestral Proto-Indo-European (PIE) tongue. In so doing, one finds a shared lexical genealogy underlying the linguistic source of the Western notions of life. The diversity of word-forms that are associative of life in today’s vernacular grew out of a seemingly labyrinthine – though, in reality, a highly integrative – state of comprehension of the affiliation between the mortal human being and the natural environment in the prehistoric PIE civilization. In the logos of ancient Greek thought, emanating from the ancestral mythos of the PIE and early Mediterranean peoples, the ideas of "life" and "nature" were fused into a unified vision of existence – as can be seen in the prehistoric origin of the verb be itself. This book concentrates on more than sheer words; it is also on how we – the living, sentient beings that we are – speak of our very being in space and time in the world around us. The birthright of a conjoined sentience of life and nature has branched-out through the ages of Western thinking. The legacy today is a fossilized linguistic Tree of Life, engendering a plurality of words for "life"; wherein, each of us must create our own meaning of "life."

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Edited by Ali Almanna and Juan José Martínez Sierra

This volume affords an opportunity to reconsider international connections and conflicts from the specific standpoint of translation as a dynamic, sociocultural activity, carried out and influenced by numerous stakeholders. The various chapters contained in this volume survey a wide range of languages and cultures, and they all pivot around the relationships that can be established between translation and ideology, re-narration, identity, cultural representation and knowledge reproduction. The ultimate aim is to shed light on the actual act of translating in which the self is well-presented and beautified and the other is deformed and made ugly. In this volume, due consideration is given to the main frames (be they characterization, interpretive or identity frames) as well as to the nonverbal factors that play a fundamental role in forming the final shape of the translated product.
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Mariko Morisawa

Eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben zur Erforschung der deutschen Sprachgeschichte ist die Analyse der sprachlichen Heterogenität und ihrer Veränderung innerhalb eines Stadtgebiets. Dieses Buch untersucht unter historisch-soziolinguistischen Aspekten die Verteilung von Relativsatzeinleitungen in verschiedenen Textgruppen aus der Stadt Nürnberg sowie ihre Veränderung im Laufe des 16. Jahrhunderts. Zum Korpus zählen Kanzleibriefe, deren Sprache als damalige Prestigesprache gilt, private Schriftstücke weiblicher und männlicher Verfasser und Drucke, wie etwa religiöse Erbauungstexte. Der Vergleich der Daten jeder Textgruppe miteinander zeigt, dass die Druckereien im Nürnberg der zweiten Jahrhunderthälfte einen größeren Einfluss auf den Sprachgebrauch der Bürger haben als die Kanzlei.

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Predicting Item Difficulty in a Reading Test

A Construct Identification Study of the Austrian 2009 Baseline English Reading Test

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Klaus Siller

In this book, the author investigates a central issue in language testing research: What are the key features that contribute to item difficulty in a reading test? Results of various statistical analyses of the multiple-choice reading items from the Austrian 2009 baseline reading test show a significant correlation between empirical item difficulty and both cognitive processes and metacognitive strategies. The findings thus provide evidence of the construct validity of the baseline reading test on the one hand, but are equally relevant to teaching practice on the other hand. The teaching of reading at lower secondary level in the Austrian context needs to focus more on cognitive processes of different complexity and the active teaching of metacognitive reading strategies.

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Applied Linguistics and Knowledge Transfer

Employability, Internationalisation and Social Challenges

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Edited by Ana Bocanegra-Valle

Applied Linguistics can contribute to the enhancement of economic growth and societal well-being by addressing today’s social challenges and integrating employability, internationalization initiatives and knowledge transfer across higher education and elsewhere. This volume aims first to raise awareness of the significant contribution of Applied Linguistics in these key areas and then explore the challenges which scholars, researchers and students need to address when trying to build successful and sustainable collaboration between universities, industries and public sectors in national, transnational and international contexts. It also provides clear pointers for bringing university degrees in line with today’s job market and social demands.