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Italian Chimeras

Narrating Italy through the Writing of Sebastiano Vassalli

Meriel Tulante

Sebastiano Vassalli (1941–2015) engaged in an ambitious project to narrate Italy, the nation, its people and its pathologies. His vast cast of characters includes a prototypical fascist father, a terrorist son, a Carmelite nun, Virgil and other literary giants, Francesco Crispi, and an orphan girl burnt as a witch. His historical panorama delves into memory, regional geographies, and national identity to interrogate the condition of the Italian nation since World War II. For Vassalli, chimeras are the myths or illusions that have repeatedly ensnared the nation, resulting in the national, social, and geopolitical dysfunctions that he denounces. Despite his literary successes and prizes (the Campiello Prize for his career, shortlisting for the Nobel Prize for Literature), he remains isolated on the Italian literary scene. This absence of critical attention largely stems from his combative relationship with the literary establishment, which developed after he broke with the neoavantgarde of the 1960s and was reinforced by his accusatory stance toward contemporary society. This book represents the first study of Vassalli’s works as a whole, investigating this difficult, contradictory, yet highly accomplished intellectual who was a major commentator on postwar society and a strongly original voice in Italian literature.
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The Mediation of Financial Crises

Watchdogs, Lapdogs or Canaries in the Coal Mine?

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Sophie Knowles

In 2007-8 the world economy started its heady journey to recession. The Queen herself asked "why didn’t we see this coming," but it’s a question that remains unanswered. A decade later and it is still not clear exactly who is responsible for the crisis. The world has experienced the long-term impact of austerity policies on its welfare system and the political landscape is completely changed.

This analysis of the media that reported on this crisis and where it came from is long overdue. The media were responsible for warning the public—a role they failed in. This book provides evidence that journalists, like bankers and regulators, need to be held accountable. The Global Financial Crisis is a starting point, but it deserves a much wider context and explanation, one this book provides for the first time.

Looking at three global and pivotal financial crises, this book assesses the degree to which financial and economics journalists have played a watchdog role for society. It takes a long glance back from the Global Financial Crisis of 2007-8 to look at the (as it shows, gradually narrowing) content we have been reading in mainstream publications, and speaks to journalists in three countries to gauge the reality of the situation from the perspective of the newsroom.

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Monsters

A Companion

Edited by Simon Bacon

What are Monsters?

Monsters are everywhere, from cyberbullies online to vampires onscreen: the twenty-first century is a monstrous age. The root of the word «monster» means «omen» or «warning», and if monsters frighten us, it’s because they are here to warn us about something amiss in ourselves and in our society. Humanity has given birth to these monsters, and they grow and change with us, carrying the scars of their birth with them.

This collection of original and accessible essays looks at a variety of contemporary monsters from literature, film, television, music and the internet within their respective historical and cultural contexts. Beginning with a critical introduction that explores the concept of the monster in the work of Jeffrey Jerome Cohen, Jack Halberstam, Elaine Showalter and more, the book takes a broad approach to the monster, including not only classic slasher films, serial killers (Bates Motel), the living dead (Game of Thrones) and aliens (District 9), but also hyper-contemporary examples like clones (Orphan Black), cyberbullies (Cyberbully), viral outbreaks (The Strain) and celebrities (Lady Gaga). Gender and culture are especially emphasized in the volume, with essays on the role of gender and sexuality in defining the monster (AHS Apocalypse) and global monsters (Cleverman, La Llorona).

This compact guide to the monster in contemporary culture will be useful to teachers, students and fans looking to expand their understanding of this important cultural figure.

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Passé(s) recomposé(s)

les commissions d’historiens dans les processus de rapprochement (Pologne-Allemagne, Pologne-Russie)

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Emmanuelle Hébert

Cet ouvrage analyse le travail des commissions d’historiens dans les processus de rapprochement en Pologne. Deux d’entre elles sont privilégiées : la commission polono-allemande portant sur les manuels scolaires et le groupe polono-russe sur les questions difficiles. Cette étude se fonde sur deux sources principales : une série d’entretiens et des recherches dans les archives, auxquelles s’ajoutent des ressources complémentaires : observations participantes et analyse de discours politiques, de sondages et de la presse. Le dialogue sur l’histoire auquel d’aucuns font appel correspond tout à fait à ce qui est demandé aux commissions d’historiens. Dès lors, pourquoi ces commissions ont-elles été créées ? Comment fonctionnent-elles et pourquoi continuent-elles de fonctionner ? Nous formons les hypothèses que, premièrement, ces commissions ont été créées dans un objectif de rapprochement, voire de réconciliation. Deuxièmement, leur fonctionnement — et sa prolongation — dépend de trois variables : le contexte, les mandats, les acteurs.

Cet ouvrage s’articule en cinq axes. Les trois premières parties portent sur chacune des trois variables évoquées : contexte, mandats, acteurs. La quatrième partie concerne les sphères d’influence de ces commissions et les débats qu’elles engendrent : politique et religion, débats publics, débats scientifiques. La dernière partie se concentre sur les projets de ces commissions : l’ouvrage commun ou les centres de dialogue du côté polono-russe, le manuel commun d’histoire du côté polono-allemand. Au travers de toutes ces pratiques, les commissions d’historiens cherchent, dans le cadre de la transformation des conflits, à réconcilier par l’histoire, c’est du moins l’un des arguments défendus dans cet ouvrage.

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Réflexions sur les usages et les utilisateurs du français : aspects acquisitionnels et didactiques

Reflections on the uses and users of French: acquisitional and didactic aspects

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Edited by Inès Saddour and Cecilia Gunnarsson-Largy

Cet ouvrage est une sélection de travaux présentés lors de l’édition 2018 de la conférence internationale de l’AFLS qui s’est tenue à l’Université Toulouse -Jean Jaurès. Ces travaux portent sur l’utilisation de la langue française en situation d’acquisition et d’apprentissage ou en contexte pédagogique. Les différentes études présentées sont basées sur une approche empirique et adoptent différents points de vue ; apportant une mise au point sur la question de l’utilisation de la langue soit par l’apprenant soit par l’enseignant dans des contextes d’apprentissage variés ; et ce à partir de plusieurs types de structures langagières analysées dans des productions orales ou écrites.

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Tolerated Evil

Prostitution in the Kingdom of Poland in the Nineteenth Century

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Jolanta Sikorska-Kulesza

In the nineteenth century, state policy towards prostitution was primarily shaped by an assessment of its role in spreading venereal diseases. In this book, the author traces normative and organisational efforts of the authorities of the Kingdom of Poland, which sought to maintain control over prostitution and the health of women who offered paid sexual services. The author uses data collected by the police and medical authorities supervising legal and illegal prostitution to provide a demographic and sociological picture of the big-city and small-town market of sexual commerce. It was only in the early twentieth century when prostitution became an important subject of the Polish public debate, a process which is described in the book against the backdrop of the major issues and fears of the epoch.

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Arithmétique maya

À la recherche des nombres perdus

André Cauty

Les Mayas ont laissé des milliers d’équations calendaires. Cet ouvrage raconte leur redécouverte, et présente la méthodologie interdisciplinaire utilisée pour les traduire et éprouver leurs possibles modes d’emploi et de fabrication.

Les équations mayas révèlent une arithmétique modulaire jouant sur une forêt de cycles dont les plus anciens, de 13 et 20 éléments, servirent à former les plus utilisés, un cycle divinatoire de 260 jours et un « siècle » de 52 ou 104 ans. Ces entiers sont loin des habituels cycles des saisons, du Soleil, ou de la Lune. Ils témoignent d’une perception du temps liée à des pratiques divinatoires et rituelles, lesquelles ont conduit à célébrer les « porteurs » de l’an ou de ses vingtuples, et à banaliser un Calendrier de 18 980 jours, que les scribes mayas confronteront aux retours de Vénus, de la Lune ou des éclipses.

Les Mayas adoptèrent un jour zéro, et se mirent à compter les jours grâce au système du Compte Long, CL, qui les numérote un à un à partir de ce zéro. Par des identifications et des équations, le CL permet de contrôler le cours synchrone de tous les cycles en usage.

Ce livre présente la plus aboutie des sagas scientifiques de la Mésoamérique précolombienne, la compare à d’autres traditions, la situe dans l’histoire des sciences, et se termine par des réflexions éthiques et épistémologiques sur la rencontre des mondes et des civilisations.

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Beyond Post-Communication

Challenging Disinformation, Deception, and Manipulation

Jim Macnamara

While many analyses have examined disinformation in recent election campaigns, misuse of ‘big data’ such as the Cambridge Analytica scandal, and manipulation by bots and algorithms, most have blamed a few bad actors. This incisive analysis presents evidence of deeper and broader corruption of the public sphere, which the author refers to as post-communication. With extensive evidence, Macnamara argues that we are all responsible for the slide towards a post-truth society. This analysis looks beyond high profile individuals such as Donald Trump, Russian trolls, and even ‘Big Tech’ to argue that the professionalized communication industries of advertising, PR, political and government communication, and journalism, driven by clickbait and aided by a lack of critical media literacy, have systematically contributed to disinformation, deception, and manipulation. When combined with powerful new communication technologies, artificial intelligence, and lack of regulation, this has led to a "perfect data storm". Accordingly, Macnamara proposes that there is no single solution. Rather, he identifies a range of strategies for communication professionals, industry associations, media organizations and platforms, educators, legislators, regulators, and citizens to challenge post-communication and post-truth.

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Adina Balint

Qu’est-ce que la littérature contemporaine d’expression française (Canada et France) peut nous apprendre de l’expérience de la mobilité comme parcours créateur orienté vers le transculturel?

Inspirée par les théories du mobility turn de John Urry et par la notion de nomadisme de Rosi Braidotti et de Gilles Deleuze et Félix Guattari, Adina Balint réfléchit aux rapports entre les frontières identitaires, spatiales et poétiques qui produisent de nouvelles figures d’appartenance. Cet ouvrage dont la réflexion se situe à la croisée des études littéraires, des études comparatistes et transculturelles explore des similitudes et différences entre les modes de représentation de la mobilité (géographique, des individus, des imaginaires) et la mise en tension entre le sujet littéraire, le territoire et la communauté chez Anaïs Barbeau-Lavalette, Simone Chaput, Sergio Kokis, Catherine Mavrikakis, Régine Robin, Maylise de Kerangal, J.M.G. Le Clézio et Andreï Makine. Il en ressort que la mobilité n’est pas une action achevée mais un processus inachevé/inachevable porteur d’une influence directe sur le devenir du personnage-narrateur/narratrice et de sa créativité.

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Edited by Andrew R. Spieldenner and Satoshi Toyosaki

Intercultural Health Communication brings together the fields of health and intercultural research in new work from leading communication scholars. This book is based on two premises: neither health nor culture is a neutral concept. The authors of this collection employ critical, qualitative, and interpretive research methodologies in order to engage the political and intersectional nature of health and culture simultaneously. Changing notions of healthy behaviors (or ill health) are not just a matter of knowledge; they live inside discourses about the body, aesthetics, science, and the world. We see this book as an important step towards developing a more transnational view of health communication. Intercultural Health Communication ties together the critical public health with critical intercultural communication. Through these connections, the authors engage the health research in, amongst others: HIV, cancer, trauma, celiac disease, radioactive pollution, food politics, and prenatal care. Intercultural Health Communication emerges from a broad need to address connections and challenges to incorporating health communication with intercultural communication approaches. After compiling this book, we see ready connections to public health, global studies, gender and sexuality studies and ethnic studies. In this day and age, nation states have to be considered within the broader frameworks of globalization, transnationalism and global health. We recognize that the contemporary health issues require an understanding of culture as integral towards eliminating health disparities.