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Azawad’s Facebook Warriors

The MNLA, Social Media, and the Malian Civil War

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Michael Keen

In January 2012, the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA), a group dominated by members of the Tuareg ethnic group, launched a military uprising seeking the independence of Mali’s vast but sparsely populated north as the democratic, secular nation-state of Azawad.  Azawad’s Facebook Warriors tells the extraordinary story of a small group of social media activists who sought to broadcast the MNLA’s cause to the world. Azawad’s Facebook Warriors offers a groundbreaking new study of the MNLA’s use of social media through the original analysis of more than 8,000 pro-MNLA Facebook posts published over a four-year period and interviews with key architects of the MNLA’s media strategy. The book further places the MNLA’s social media activism in context through a nuanced treatment of northern Mali’s history and an unparalleled blow-by-blow account of the MNLA’s role in the Malian civil war from 2012 through 2015. More broadly, through the case study of the MNLA, the book argues that studying rebel social media communications, a field that has until now unfortunately received scant scholarly attention, will prove an increasingly important tool in understanding rebel groups in coming years and decades.
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Shouying Liu

Land system reform in China has always been a hot topic and a controversial one. After the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee (2013) issued its “Decision,” people throughout society generally responded well to that part relating to land system reform, but there were also a few dissenting voices. In the face of controversy, the central government determined the principles of land system reform: it set the program, tested it in local pilots, and only then did it apply the reform uniformly, first by enacting the laws, and so on. Under this background, this book goes through the fundamental logic of China’s land system reform since the 1980s and studies the problems this logic has encountered and whether it still works well. Hence, this book covers topics ranging from the historic origin of China’d land system, China’s rural land system and the relationship between China’s urbanization and land system reform. As a famous policy expert in China, the author also provides his own insights into how to find a solution to the land issue in China. This book is suitable for anyone who is interested in the facts and relevant research works of China’s land system reform, especially researchers in similar fields.
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Revolutions and the Making of the Modern World

From Peter the Great to Karl Marx

James Cracraft

Edited by William Benton Whisenhunt

Professor James Cracraft is an established specialist on early modern Russian history, particularly the era of Peter the Great (1682-1725), tsar and first Russian emperor. This volume gathers some of the many key articles and reviews published by him over the last forty years and more in a wide variety of scholarly venues, some of which are not readily accessible. They constitute in sum important contributions not only to Russian history broadly understood, but also to the study of history itself. The collection will include a preface by the editor and an introduction by the author, where he will sum up his decades of historical work and point to new avenues of needed research, all the while emphasizing that "history" properly understood does not exist somewhere on its own but is the creation, however imperfect, of professional historians (as "chemistry", say, is properly understood as the work, however imperfect, of professional chemists).

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Japanese Politics in Comparative Perspective

From the East to the West, and Then Whither?

Takashi Inoguchi

Japan lives twice. Japan belonged to the East before 1962, when The Economist's editorialized, "Consider Japan". It gave the world a warning-cum-welcoming signal to Japan about joining the West. Thereafter Japan belonged to the West in science, industry and international law, whereas Japan was regarded psychologically in the West as belonging to the East in sakura, sushi, and snow country. After 1992, the morning after the bubble collapse, Japan belonged to the new West, not bereft of mishaps and mistakes and embedded with stall and stagnation as the rest of the old West. Yet Japan has been going through the "lost three decades" of muddling through recession and deflation, as if Japan had trod the Dengist path to "hide your strength and bide your time" without loud fanfare. By 2022 Japan will come up quietly as the oasis of stability when the world is struggling with climate change and infectious disease diffusion in addition to its decline from the overconfidence of its own capabilities. Japan has emerged, combining its aggregate niches of technology of its own erstwhile dominant manufacturing, further enhanced by technological prowess obtained by massive foreign direct investment due to sluggish domestic market demand. In examining Japanese politics in comparative angle, this book starts by asking: from the East to the West, and then whither?
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Jiang Yi-hua

This book aims to introduce all aspects of Chinese civilization in a way that is easiest for readers in the Western world to understand. The first chapter of this book introduces the emergence, historical evolution and characteristics of Chinese civilization. The second chapter introduces the knowledge pedigree of Chinese civilization, which is characterized by human-centered and historical and social practice. The third chapter introduces the value pedigree of Chinese civilization with ethics and responsibility as the core and the fourth chapter introduces the national governance system of Chinese civilization in selecting and appointing talents. The fifth chapter introduces China’s self-organization of mutual assistance and mutual benefit and the final chapter discusses the relationship between Chinese civilization and world civilization in the new era. Since entering the 21st century, China's economic aggregate and political influence have increased day by day. However, for a long time, the Western world's view of China has been full of various prejudices and misunderstandings which are produced by the ignorance of the history and current situation of Chinese civilization. It is hoped that readers can profoundly change their views on China after reading this book.
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Rethinking the Academy

Beyond Eurocentrism in Higher Education

Augie Fleras

Universities and colleges like to self-idealize as relatively neutral and value-free sites of higher learning. In reality, the idea of the Westernized academy is deeply embedded in a Eurocentric logic that not only excludes alternative forms of knowledge and knowing, but also remains racialized, gendered, and sited in coloniality with respect to governance, scholarship, and entitlements. Efforts to address this gap between the ideal and reality have tended toward diversifying the academy through multicultural initiatives in diversity, inclusion, and equity. However helpful as a first step, these interventions are insufficient in generating the kind of substantive changes that would abort the academy’s crisis of legitimacy. Moves to decolonize, ungender, and deracialize the academy will require a commitment to the transformative principles of inclusivity, including a focus on those root causes associated with structural barriers and systemic biases. It remains to be seen if the academia can rise to the challenge of deEurocentrizing the idea of the academy along postEurocentric lines, while engaging the emergent demands and evolving realities of a postmulticultural world.
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Les années 1910

Arts décoratifs, mode, design

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Edited by Jérémie Cerman

Coincés entre le tournant du xxe siècle, qui voit encore s’épanouir les diverses expressions de l’Art nouveau, et l’entre-deux-guerres, que l’on associe à l’Art déco, les développements des arts appliqués dans les années 1910 paraissent quelque peu délaissés par l’historiographie. Pourtant, depuis la présence des créateurs allemands au Salon d’Automne de 1910 jusqu’à la fondation du Bauhaus à Weimar en 1919, en passant par les commandes que passe déjà le couturier Jacques Doucet à différents décorateurs, bien des événements rappellent la place cruciale qu’occupe cette décennie dans l’histoire des arts décoratifs, de la mode et du design.

Cet ouvrage rassemble vingt-deux textes, issus pour la plupart des communications délivrées lors d’un colloque international organisé en 2016 au Centre André Chastel et au Mobilier national. Ces contributions permettent de reconsidérer la production décorative et usuelle des années 1910 à l’aune des recherches récentes. Elles reviennent sur les débats qui sous-tendent la production étudiée, considèrent l’importance prise par la mode dans la genèse de ce qui prendra a posteriori le nom d’Art déco, réévaluent les années de guerre en tant que période de gestation de productions futures et explorent la diversité des parcours artistiques, tout en inscrivant la réflexion dans une dimension internationale (France, Belgique, États-Unis, Grande-Bretagne, Italie, Allemagne, Autriche, Pologne, Croatie).

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Helena Dettmer

In his 1995 Teubner edition, J. B. Hall separates Tristia 1.5, 1.9, 3.4, 4.4, 5.2, and 5.7 into two poems. One reviewer of Hall’s edition is highly critical of the editor for not justifying the separation of these poems despite the fact the divisions have manuscript support. Because of the sorry state of the textual transmission of Ovid's five books of Tristia, it is sometimes difficult to determine the beginning and end of an individual poem if that poem resumes thematically and verbally where the previous poem concludes. The aim of this study is to show that definitive evidence can be offered to justify division of these six elegies into two poems. Structure combined with theme serves as an analytical tool that defines the beginning and end of the twelve literary pieces under consideration and highlights their artistry. Resolution of the issue of unity enhances our interpretation of the independent poems and our understanding of the complex interplay among poems within each poetry-book. The careful and often brilliant craftsmanship of the poems and of the books in which they appear reaffirms that Ovid’s repeated deprecation of the quality of his literary work composed during his period of exile in the Black Sea region is simply a pose to attract sympathy and support from his Roman audience.
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The Language of Feminine Duty

Articulating Gender, Culture, and Covert Policy in Modern Japan

Rika Saito

This book examines "women’s speech" as a policy of constructs expressed in official and unofficial discourse from the 1880s to the 1920s in Japan. It analyzes specific language policies that were incorporated through governmental gender policy to perpetuate "women’s speech," asymmetrical gendered speech styles and concepts in the Japanese language. It also seeks to develop cross-cultural approaches to language and gender theories initiated in the United States and Europe by proposing new concepts of language policy. This work contributes to ongoing interdisciplinary scholarship on gender, language, and policy by reconsidering the relationship between the Japanese "national language" and "women’s speech."

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Las revoluciones hispánicas y la historiografía contemporánea

Historia de las ideas, liberalismo e Ilustración en el mundo hispánico durante la Era de las revoluciones

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Roberto Breña

La independencia de las Trece Colonias y la Revolución Francesa han ocupado un lugar privilegiado en el estudio de la Era de las revoluciones. Los nueve capítulos de este libro plantean colocar a la revolución liberal española, al liberalismo hispánico y a las independencias hispanoamericanas en un lugar destacado en el estudio de dicha era. Esto lo hace el autor mediante un análisis de varios aspectos políticos e intelectuales del mundo hispánico del primer cuarto del siglo XIX que muestran su riqueza, su peculiaridad, su complejidad y sus aportaciones a la historia de las ideas en Occidente. En resumen, el libro que el lector tiene en sus manos proporciona argumentos para concluir que no se puede seguir ignorando a las revoluciones hispánicas cuando se escribe historia política o historia intelectual sobre la Era de las revoluciones.

Fuera de algunos especialistas, muy pocas personas saben que el término "liberal" con una connotación política surgió en el mundo hispánico al final de la primera década del siglo XIX. Concretamente, en las Cortes de Cádiz, una asamblea de representantes españoles e hispanoamericanos que se reunieron en ese puerto español entre 1810 y 1814. Esa asamblea bi-continental y la constitución que elaboraron (la Constitución de Cádiz o Constitución de 1812) consideraron como ciudadanos a los indígenas de América y el documento era el más abierto que hasta entonces se había redactado en términos de participación electoral. Además, tuvo repercusiones sobre varias regiones italianas, Portugal, Rusia y Noruega, así como, por supuesto, sobre los territorios hispanoamericanos, los cuales pronto extendieron la revolución hispánica al Nuevo Continente y optaron por una vía propia hacia la modernidad política que surgió en Occidente durante la Era de las revoluciones.