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Leroy Ghislain

Cet ouvrage vise à cerner les spécificités contemporaines de l’école maternelle, en mettant au jour les attentes particulières qui y règnent vis-à-vis des enfants. L’auteur réactive ainsi le questionnement des premiers sociologues de l’école maternelle (Dannepond, Plaisance, Chamboredon et Prévot), pour l’appliquer à la période contemporaine. Après la recherche de productivité (années 50), puis d’expressivité (années 60-70), qu’est-ce que l’école maternelle cherche aujourd’hui à faire de l’enfant ?

Mobilisant entretiens, observations, étude des programmes et des rapports d’inspection, l’auteur montre que, dans les dernières décennies, on attend de plus en plus que l’enfant soit un élève autonome et performant. Ceci s’explique notamment par l’évolution des politiques publiques et leur recherche nouvelle de rentabilité, qui ont transformé les objectifs et pratiques ordinaires de l’école maternelle. Du côté de l’enfant, ces attentes d’autonomie et de performance se déclinent en exigences disciplinaires, cognitives, émotionnelles et même hygiéniques qui s’avèrent en partie spécifiques à la période contemporaine. Elles semblent paradoxalement aboutir à renforcer les inégalités sociales, car les enfants issus des catégories moyennes et supérieures y apparaissent bien plus préparés. Ceci ressort notamment de l’étude des pratiques d’inspiration montessorienne, qui se sont diffusées très récemment.

L’école maternelle contemporaine viserait-elle à initier l’enfant à un certain ethos contemporain, performer, qui hante notre imaginaire social ?

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Enseignements à distance

Des arts savants, le génie d’un métier, l’instruction en valeurs : anthropologies d’une organisation éducative

Olivier Marty

Les enseignements à distance émanent de l’endroit des signes ; ils permettent l’élévation par des messages lointains. D’où viennent ces signes ? Qui les adressent ? Qui sont les enseignants à leur origine ? Comment pensent, travaillent et évaluent ceux qui font l’enseignement à distance ? C’est à ces questions de recherches anthropologiques que répond l’ethnographie que nous livrons ici ; elle a pris place pendant trois années dans une organisation éducative vénérable, grâce à son site dédié à l’enseignement supérieur – dont nous garderons l’anonymat par déontologie.

La professionnalité de la profession de professeur, qui est parole devant audience, laisse alors place à une industrie du signe paradoxale, souvent muette dans les fascicules, parfois loquace sur des enregistrements sonores, voire audiovisuels et numériques. Les arts et les métiers, que nous décrirons par le détail, montrent une pensée gestionnaire à l’œuvre dans cette institution (c’est le lien formation-emploi) ; un génie nouveau, à la fois ingénu, car libre, et ingénieux puisqu’inventif avec des supports modernes, comme la classe virtuelle. Mais nous verrons aussi la permanence des valeurs de l’instruction par l’évaluation qualitative, supérieure à la masse des nombres.

Faisant abstraction des péripéties du quotidien, vous pourrez lire une anthropologie de l’éducation qui est une anthropologie des savoirs, non pas produits, mais de ceux qui les produisent. C’est l’anthropologie d’une organisation éducative, économique par l’agence étudiée dans son labeur, mais aussi épistémique par ses objets, résultats et conditions de possibilités.

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Enseigner et apprendre les langues au XXIe siècle

Méthodes alternatives et nouveaux dispositifs d'accompagnement

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Edited by Sabina Gola, Michel Pierrard, Evie Tops and Dan Van Raemdonck

Les méthodologies d’apprentissage des langues étrangères ont fortement varié durant les siècles, et notamment au vingtième. De la grammaire traduction à la méthode actionnelle, en passant par les méthodes structuro-globales, behavioristes, naturelles, communicatives, voire éclectiques, les raisons des modifications sont à chercher tant du côté de l’évolution et des avancées scientifiques, notamment dans le domaine des sciences humaines, que des modifications des besoins et de la prise en compte de la valeur des échanges linguistiques, sans oublier les changements idéologiques qui les sous-tendent. Les évolutions technologiques ont également apporté leur lot de potentialités nouvelles. Tous ces changements ont également eu un impact sur la relation entre apprenants et enseignants, à côté de laquelle se sont par ailleurs développés d’autres modes d’apprentissage qui sont venus compléter la panoplie des méthodes, notamment en contexte multilingue. L’apprenant, devenu acteur de son apprentissage, trouve des ressources ailleurs qu’auprès de l’enseignant de langue, que ce soit par le biais d’enseignements de matières spécifiques donnés en langue étrangère (enseignement ÉMILE-CLIL), de nouvelles technologies (blended learning ou Moocs, plateformes en ligne ou applications) ou en ayant recours à des pairs, le cas échéant, hors de la classe (tables de conversation ou tandems linguistiques). Le présent volume se propose d’étudier scientifiquement quelques-uns de ces dispositifs d’accompagnement : leur conception, leurs conditions d’apparition et les résultats observés.

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Iwona Zamkowska

Nearly a third of religious liberty cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court addressed religion and education. Numbers that high, the problem definitely deserves consideration of international public. What were the main forces that shaped religious liberty in public education in one of its most formative periods? Did the introduction of religious liberty legal framework in public schools advance religious liberty of students as independent autonomous actors? The author discusses this cultural problem from a broad and complex perspective: both internationally recognized theory of a child’s religious freedom rights and the American models of religious liberty. To cover a wide spectrum of viewpoints, she analyses a broad selection of documents, from state and NGO publications to media coverage.

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What's Race Got To Do With It?

How Current School Reform Policy Maintains Racial and Economic Inequality. Second Edition

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Edited by Edwin Mayorga, Ujju Aggarwal and Bree Picower

At the time that the first edition of What’s Race Got to Do with It was published (2015), many on the left were struggling to both fight back neoliberal education reforms—such as charter schools, school closings, high-stakes testing—understand how these reforms were defined, and how they circulated through the entanglements of race and class. In the years since, we have seen the accelerated growth of social movements push back against this logic. The steady and grounded work of those fighting back neoliberal education reform has increased the visibility and critique of privatization, market-based reforms, and segregation; demonstrating the interlocking connections between racism and capitalism. We have also seen the election of Donald Trump to the office of U.S. President and the appointment of Betsy DeVos as Secretary of Education, signaling an intensified attack on public education (alongside other public infrastructures) and a return to "racism as we knew it." As neoliberal multicultural reforms that defined the Obama administration are rolled back, this new edition of What’s Race considers how we might sharpen our analysis concerning what we are working to defend and what we are working to transform. Each chapter author tracks the changes and continuities of recent years, revealing the ways in which market-driven education reforms work with and through race, and sharing grassroots stories of resistance to these reforms. We hope that this book will continue to provide readers with a guide to action that emboldens our struggles for justice.

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Thomas P. Crumpler and Lara J. Handsfield

Previous scholars have investigated aspects of the complexity of teacher identity and demonstrated the need to look beyond skills and generalized "best practices" to consider social processes and power relationships. However, few books focus on teacher identities at both the micro and macro levels. In this timely book, the authors argue that teacher identity awareness is crucial for both preservice and in-service teachers who desire deeper knowledge about the role of identities in effective instruction. The Complex Development of Preservice and Inservice Teacher Identities breaks new theoretical ground in understanding teacher identities by bringing a process drama lens to bear on development at the macro and micro levels. Process drama uses dramatic structures such as teacher in role, students in role, tableau and others to activate imaginations and explore interpretive possibilities. Through this lens Crumpler and Handsfield show how teacher identities are performed, reproduced, and how they may shift at the micro level—in everyday discourse and classroom practices—across a span of two years. Two years of data are analyzed using micro-ethnographic discourse analysis to demonstrate how teachers tactically position themselves to navigate current political discourses of accountability and standardization in both pre-service and in-service contexts. Understanding how identities are constructed, evolve, and shift moment-by-moment is essential for programs striving to prepare successful teachers and for schools providing meaningful professional development for in-service teachers.

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Teach For All Counter-Narratives

International Perspectives on a Global Reform Movement

Edited by T. Jameson Brewer, Kathleen deMarrais and Kelly L. McFaden

Founded in 1989, Teach For America (TFA) has grown into a massive organization with a presence across the United States and expanded internationally to 46 countries. TFA’s international expansion through Teach For All (TFAll) coincides with a broader exportation of neoliberal education reform ideologies across the globe. As a follow up to Teach For America Counter-Narratives: Alumni Speak Up and Speak Out (Peter Lang, 2015), this text is the first to provide a glimpse into the first-hand experiences of those impacted by the colonizing nature of TFAll and the global education reform movement of privatization.

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Teilhabe braucht Rehabilitation

Blicke zurück in die Zukunft

Edited by Helga Seel

Die Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft für Rehabilitation e. V. (BAR) ist der Zusammenschluss der Rehabilitationsträger. Seit 1969 fördert sie im gegliederten Sozialleistungssystem die Teilhabe von Menschen mit Behinderungen. Die BAR koordiniert und unterstützt das Zusammenwirken der Reha-Träger, vermittelt Wissen und arbeitet mit an der Weiterentwicklung von Rehabilitation und Teilhabe. Ihre Mitglieder sind die Träger der Gesetzlichen Renten-, Kranken- und Unfallversicherung, die Bundesagentur für Arbeit, die Bundesländer, die Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der Integrationsämter und Hauptfürsorgestellen, die Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der überörtlichen Träger der Sozialhilfe, die Kassenärztliche Bundesvereinigung sowie die Sozialpartner.

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Intern Teachers Using Currere

Discovering Education as a River

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Leslie L. Palmer

Intern Teachers Using Currere: Discovering Education as a River is about a new way of grounding students in teacher preparation programs that allows them to access their previous experiences and concepts of education as the basis for developing their individual understandings of curriculum in the fullness of its meaning. Currere is shown as a remarkable process that can have a tremendously positive influence on a teacher’s developing identity, her understanding of lived curriculum, and her emerging recognition of pedagogy.

The metaphor of a river is used to open up the phenomenon of using Currere to understand curriculum through various sources that reveal relationships with language, dwelling, identity, and hermeneutic phenomenology. The initial themes that arise include moments, in-between spaces, abundance, resilience, and the flow of lived experience. Further conversation and interpretation reveal deeper pedagogical themes, including navigating unexpected experiences; the difficulties of finding authenticity in a mentor’s classroom; the constant state of being watched, observed, and evaluated; exploring the teacher-self; and discovering the curriculum and pedagogy of lived experience.

Based on these emergent themes, this book explores ways in which the lived experience of using Currere to understand curriculum has pedagogical implications for teacher practice and teacher preparation. It suggests that opportunities for intern teachers to use the Currere process can help them discover for themselves what it is to be a teacher; develop orientations of stewardship toward professional practice; deepen their understandings of curriculum in its abundance; and create a lived curriculum of pedagogical care in their classrooms for the children whom they have committed to serve.

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Constructing the (M)other

Narratives of Disability, Motherhood, and the Politics of «Normal»

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Edited by Priya Lalvani

Constructing the (M)other is a collection of personal narratives about motherhood in the context of a society in which disability holds a stigmatized position. From multiple vantage points, these autoethnographies reveal how ableist beliefs about disability are institutionally upheld and reified. Collectively they seek to call attention to a patriarchal surveillance of mothering, challenge the trope of the good mother, and dismantle the constructed hierarchy of acceptable children. The stories contained in this volume are counter-narratives of resistance—they are the devices through which mothers push back. Rejecting notions of the otherness of their children, in these essays, mothers negotiate their identities and claim access to the category of normative motherhood. Readers are likely to experience dissonance, have their assumptions about disability challenged, and find their parameters of normalcy transformed.