Browse by title

You are looking at 101 - 110 of 408,611 items for

Restricted access

The Ten Pillars of American Democracy

Has the United States Become a Pseudo-Democracy?

Michael Haas

Democracy rests on ten pillars. However, they have fallen in the United States because both major political parties have strayed from the concept of government of the people, by the people, and for the people. One party wants to recreate life in the past, while the other party appeals to the economic self-interest of specific groups. The coup on January 6, 2021, has prompted a fundamental analysis of what has gone wrong, but proposed corrections have failed to strengthen belief in democracy.

The fundamental pillars are of two types—preconditions and the structure of government. The preconditions are a strong middle and working class, belief in liberal and social democracy, an informed citizenry, a vibrant civil society, and a Constitution prescribing equal justice. Governments must have legislatures with integrity, an independent and competent bureaucracy and civil society, an executive who acts with civility, and free and fair elections. In each case, the trend had been away from democracy.

According to the Mass Society Paradigm, democracy works best when the voices of the people are aggregated into coherent programs by political parties, which seek majority approval and then demand action by government to solve problems, with the information media performing an oversight over the political process and government actions. But in the United States, some individuals are so cultural desperate that they have supported politicians favoring extreme measures to end democracy by paying attention to alternative concepts of reality. If ever achieved, corrective measures will take decades.

Restricted access

Series:

The protagonist of the novel Zárate, Santos Zárate was a historical figure. A Venezuelan highwayman with a stronghold in the forest of Güere, he terrorized the valleys of Aragua for some twelve years. The action of the novel takes place in 1825, a few years after Venezuela had sealed its independence from Spain by defeating the Spanish forces at the Battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821). At this time, General Francisco José de Paula Santander was vice president of the Gran Colombia, the conglomerate of Colombia and Venezuela that had fought Spain for its freedom. General José Antonio Páez governed the Venezuelan region, with his headquarters in Valencia. The entire nation readied itself to confront the great scourge of the times—the terrible and feared marauders that sowed apprehension and terror among the residents of the valleys of Aragua.

There is in the novel the exaltation of an elite agrarian way of life, idyllic, edenic, that contrasts vividly with the violence of life in the llanos and, especially, with the activities of the highwaymen. Moreover, there is a delicate love story that develops pari passu with the official activities of the main protagonists. The development of the female characters may seem a bit quaint for today’s tastes, though they are beautiful and carefully drawn. An irrepressible humor, at times subtle, pervades the entire novel.

Restricted access

Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht

Ein Beitrag zum Zusammenwirken der Kontrollinstrumente im Befristungsrecht nach der Schuldrechtsmodernisierung

Series:

Maximilian Otto Houf

In dieser Publikation werden zunächst die Möglichkeiten der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht dargestellt. Sodann widmet sich der Autor den Grenzen der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht durch den Gesetzgeber und die Rechtsprechung. Behandelt werden Fragen des Befristungsrechts des gesamten Arbeitsvertrages sowie einzelner Vertragsbedingungen. Das Augenmerk richtet sich auf das Zusammenwirken des TzBfG mit der AGB-Kontrolle, insbesondere im Lichte des Transparenzgebots. Ein umfassender Teil beschäftigt sich mit der Rechtsprechung zur sachgrundlosen Befristung nach § 14 II TzBfG sowie rechtspolitischen Vorhaben der Bundesregierung der 19. Legislaturperiode.

Restricted access

Texte und Medien

Linguistische Zugänge zu Textmanifestationen in medialen Spielräumen

Series:

Edited by Dorota Kaczmarek, Marcin Michoń and Dariusz Prasalski

Die Kommunikationsformen in den alten und insbesondere in den neuen Medien unterliegen einem ständigen Wandel, der sich etwa dadurch manifestiert, dass völlig neue Textsorten entstehen oder die Gebrauchskonventionen einzelner, für die jeweilige Textklasse typischer Sprachzeichen modifiziert werden. Mit der Entwicklung der Medien und ihren neuen Erscheinungsformen gehen auch neue Methoden und technische Lösungen der Überwindung von Barrieren einher. Sie erlauben es, die Kommunikation über kulturelle, sprachliche Grenzen sowie Behinderungen der an ihr Teilnehmenden hinauszutragen.

Ziel dieser Publikation ist es, exemplarisch zu zeigen, welche Formen der Wandel annimmt, wie er funktional zu beschreiben ist und welcher Stellenwert ihm in medialen Spielräumen zukommt. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes geben also vielfältige, theoretische und empirische Einblicke in derartige Veränderungen. Dabei werden solche Aspekte aufgegriffen wie Textsortenmerkmale von Videorezensionen [Textsorten im intermedialen Vergleich], Selbstdarstellung [in Hypertexten], Multimodalität [von Memes und Karikaturen], Verwendung von Hashtags, Witztechniken, Authentizitätsstrategien [in Restaurantkritiken], Hassrede [im Wahlkampfdiskurs], Audiodeskription [von Dokumentarfilmen] und Klangfiguren [in Kindergedichten].

Restricted access

Series:

Luca Valleriani

This volume deals with the language of the British upper class in natural face-to-face dialogue and how this is rendered fictionally in audiovisual media. Its main aim is that of reorganising the sparse information on the topic that is found in previous scholarly studies through a qualitative methodological approach.

After focusing on the linguistic description and evolution of the upper-class sociolect, the study offers original insights on the language of the Royal Family and its representation in the TV series The Crown.

The results from this research, which combines the disciplines of sociolinguistics and dialectology applied to the audiovisual text, will hopefully open a new path in the study of language of elite groups in Britain, arguably an under-researched topic.

Restricted access

Series:

Edited by Beatrix Kreß, Katsiaryna Roeder, Kathrin Schweiger and Ksenija Vossmiller

Mehrsprachigkeit ist einerseits Phänomen, andererseits Forschungsfeld und als Zeichen fortschreitender gesellschaftlicher Diversifizierung in aller Munde. Der vorliegende Band setzt die Mehrsprachigkeit in eine Beziehung zur interkulturellen Kommunikation und zur Sprachvermittlung aus einer Perspektive des Deutschen als Fremdsprache und Zweitsprache. Die Beiträge nehmen unterschiedliche Institutionen der Bildung in den Blick und betrachten besondere Formen und Herausforderungen des Spracherwerbs für Fremd-, Zweit- und Herkunftssprachenlerner_innen. Dabei muss systematisch auch die Rolle kultureller Faktoren betrachtet werden. Insofern ist eine Besonderheit des Bandes, dass die Außenperspektive auf das Deutsche als Gegenstand des Sprach- und Kulturlernens in zahlreichen Beiträgen berücksichtigt wird.

Restricted access

Series:

Edited by Louis Fantasia

Playing Shakespeare’s Rebels and Tyrants is the fourth volume in the Peter Lang series, Playing Shakespeare’s Characters. As in the previous volumes, a broad range of contributors (actors, directors, scholars, educators, etc.) analyze the concepts of rebellion, tyranny, leadership, empathy with not only references to Elizabethan and Jacobean studies, but also to Donald Trump, the social justice movement, and the January 6, 2021 insurrection. Shakespeare's rebels occupy space in both the personal and political, and often quickly turn from rebel to tyrant once in power. How can Shakespeare's text inform current conversations about race, equity, representation, rebellion and tyranny? Who gets to define the power dynamics in Shakespeare’s plays? This volume looks at the Henrys, Hotspurs, Richards, Lears, Brutuses and Caesars, as well as the Juliets, Rosalinds and Cordelias who make up the panoply of Shakespeares rebels and tyrants.

Restricted access

Self-Realization

Analysis of a Primary Literary Theme

Series:

Horst S. Daemmrich

The study of self-realization as a primary literary theme covers a wide range of literature. The journey to self-discovery can be represented in many different forms, from novels of development to social criticism and to historical plays. It can provide the core of a basic literary form, such as a fairytale and the decision on crossroads of life. The self as a primary literary element can be identified as an axis of symmetry, similar to a central section of a wheel, which connects to all related themes. The description of space, setting, time, historical moment, and heritage shape all documentation of self-orientation. Thematic developments highlight specific appropriate locations for the unfolding story. By comparing works from different periods and examining manifestations of the theme in American, French, English, and German literature, this study traces the theme of self-realization in the coming-of-age constellation, the acceptance and the criticism of existing social conditions, the attempts to comprehend the past and the current historical conditions, and in utopian visions of the future.

While literature has provided singular and unforgettable portraits of figures in works ranging from Bellow, Dickens, Fontane, Goethe, Moliere, Schiller, Grass, and Raabe to Tolstoy or Trollope, it is equally apparent that primary forms of self-realization show a high correlation of recurring patterns. Some features associated with primary thematic emphasis and resolution occur with high frequency. Figures can be conceived of as being capable of intellectual and spiritual growth. Alternately, in a moment of insight, they may persevere in their errors in judgment, the frailty of institutions, or a web of circumstances that impeded their optimal development. In such instances, the action is usually designed to convey a vision of human potential to the reader—and furthermore, raise serious questions about the apparent predetermination of existence.

Restricted access

Building a Research-Rich Teaching Profession

The Promises and Challenges of Doctoral Studies as a Form of Teacher Professional Development

Series:

Marta Kowalczuk-Walędziak

This book offers a research-based insight into a unique - and growing - group of teachers: those who have decided to undertake doctoral studies as a part of their ongoing professional development. Drawing on interviews with 30 Polish teachers with PhDs, this book illustrates how the doctorate is an important vehicle for strengthening teachers’ skills and knowledge, leading them to implement research-based teaching and learning pedagogies in their classrooms. Given these promising findings, this text ultimately seeks to identify implications for policy and practice in the process of building a truly research-rich teaching profession. After all, it is time to rethink the current doctoral education landscape, with the goal of enriching the relationship between research and practice.