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General Reference Clauses in the Judicial Process

Context of Legislative Intentions and Interpretative Discretion

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Leszek Leszczyński

The purpose of this work is to analyze the functioning of extra-legal references (general clauses) in the context of the relation between the legislative policy of opening the legal system and judicial discretion in the field of law interpretation. This publication is based on the analysis of normative acts (in Poland and other selected European countries) and judicial decisions (mainly Polish). The result of the study is an attempt to settle the scope of judicial discretion in determining the content of reference criteria, the basis for their application, and their role in various stages of the process of judicial interpretation of the law. The book concludes with an attempt to construct a comparative and an optimization model of the functioning of general clauses in the legal order.

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Edited by Feridoon Koohi-Kamali

This book explores Latin American inequality broadly in terms of its impact on the regions development and specifically with two country studies from Peru on earnings inequality and child labor as a consequence of inequality for child labor. The first chapter provides substantial recent undated analysis of the critical thesis of deindustrialization for Latin America. The second chapter provides an approach to measuring labor market discrimination that departs from the current treatment of unobservable influences in the literature. The third chapterr examines a much-neglected topic of child labor using a panel data set specifically on children.

The book is appropriate for courses on economic development, labor economics courses and those interested in inequality, development and applied econometrics.

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Midiendo la efectividad de la Legislación Ambiental

Indicadores jurídicos al servicio del desarrollo sostenible

Michel Prieur, Christophe Bastin and Ali Mekouar

Este libro presenta un nuevo método para medir la eficacia del derecho ambiental nacional e internacional. Es el resultado de cuatro años de investigación y experimentación para desarrollar una forma de construir indicadores legales. Los únicos indicadores existentes sobre el medio ambiente sólo miden datos estadísticos, científicos o económicos.

Con los indicadores jurídicos, los gobiernos, los parlamentos, los agentes económicos y sociales y las ONG medioambientales podrán evaluar concretamente, sobre una base científica, cuáles son las lagunas, los avances y los retrocesos en la aplicación de los convenios internacionales y las leyes nacionales. Los indicadores legales servirán como herramientas para la toma de decisiones, en particular para llevar a cabo reformas con pleno conocimiento de causa y no a ciegas.

El método matemático utilizado permite, a partir de un cuestionario que resalta todas las etapas jurídicas e institucionales de la aplicación de los textos legales, aporta datos que destacan los puntos que deben mejorarse y los puntos fuertes de la aplicación del derecho.

Esta actualización de un primer libro publicado en 2018 por el Instituto de la Francofonía para el desarrollo sostenible (IFDD, siglas en francés) ha sido posible gracias al apoyo de la Cátedra de Normandía por la Paz (CNRS, Región de Normandía, Maison de la recherche en Sciences Humaines (MRSH) y la Universidad de Caen - Francia). Una línea de investigación está dedicada a este tema de los indicadores jurídicos y la Cátedra de Excelencia espera que este trabajo sea ampliamente difundido y accesible en acceso abierto en inglés, francés y español.

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Xinkuan Sun

Mit dem verbreiteten Einsatz von Zahlungsinstrumenten geht auch das Missbrauchsrisiko einher. Das Buch widmet sich der Frage, wie dieses Missbrauchsrisiko zwischen dem Zahler und seinem Zahlungsdienstleister in Deutschland und China verteilt wird. Auf Grundlage der rechtsvergleichenden Ergebnisse schlägt der Autor vor, eine einheitliche und spezialgesetzliche Regelung der Risikoverteilung beim Missbrauch von Zahlungsinstrumenten in China einzuführen.

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Voluntary Sustainability Standards

Illusions of Progress and a Way Forward

Ulrich Hoffmann and Arpit Bhutani

Sustainability standards, and in particular voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) have become an integral part of facilitating green consumerism and promoting green economy and green growth. While such standards have undoubtedly led to some desirable change in production structures and methods, as well as in improved material, resource and energy efficiency, overall results have remained modest, mostly incremental and far from leading to transformational, sector- or economy-wide changes. It is therefore high time that after some 30 years of increasing use of sustainability standards one takes stock of their achievements and pros and cons. This analysis should however not be confined to a technical review of the progress in improving or perfectioning the standard system and best practice in standard application and use, but primarily focus on a review of the political economy of VSS and their record in reshaping the current largely unsustainable agro-food economy and the situation of farmers. Many, in particular voluntary sustainability standards are now at a crossroads, but instead of realizing the systemic, deep-rooted nature of the crisis and conceiving of much-required reforms most standard advocates continue to focus their activities on improving the functioning of the standard system and emulating or disseminating best standard-compliance practice. Against this background, the book wonders what the illusions and what the reality of VSS have been in recent decades and whether these standards can be made fit for a future, in which sustainability issues are bound to play an even more important and pressing role. As appendix we looked into the relationship between the Corona crisis as one of the many other epidemics which have hit us hard and the future of globalized supply chains, of which VSS are part of.
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Measuring the Effectivity of Environmental Law

Legal Indicators for Sustainable Development

Michel Prieur and Christophe Bastin

This book presents a new method for measuring the effectiveness of national and international environmental law. It is the result of four years of research and experimentation to develop a way to construct legal indicators. The only existing environmental indicators measure only statistical, scientific or economic data.

With legal indicators, governments, parliaments, economic and social actors and environmental NGOs will be able to assess concretely, on a scientific basis, what are the gaps, progress and setbacks in the implementation of international conventions and national laws. The legal indicators will serve as tools for decision-making, in particular to carry out reforms in full knowledge of the facts and not blindly.

The mathematical method used makes it possible, on the basis of a questionnaire highlighting all the legal and institutional stages of the application of legal texts, to provide data highlighting the points to be improved and the strengths of the application of the law.

This update of a first book published in 2018 by the Institut de la Francophonie pour le développement durable (IFDD, French acronym) has been made possible thanks to the support of the Normandy Chair for Peace (CNRS, Normandy Region, Maison de la recherche en Sciences Humaines (MRSH) and the University of Caen - France). A line of research is dedicated to this topic of legal indicators and the Chair of Excellence hopes that this work will be widely disseminated and accessible in open source in English, French and Spanish.

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Mesurer l’effectivité du droit de l’environnement

Des indicateurs juridiques au service du développement durable

Michel Prieur, Christophe Bastin and Ali Mekouar

Cet ouvrage présente une méthode inédite de mesurage de l’effectivité du droit de l’environnement tant national qu’international. Il est le fruit de quatre ans de recherches et d’expérimentations afin de mettre au point la façon de construire des indicateurs juridiques. Les seuls indicateurs existants sur l’environnement ne mesurent que des données statistiques, scientifiques ou économiques.

Grâce à des indicateurs juridiques, les gouvernements, les parlements, les acteurs économiques et sociaux et les ONG d’environnement pourront apprécier concrètement, sur un fondement scientifique, quelles sont les lacunes, les avancées et les régressions dans les modalités d’application des conventions internationales et des lois nationales. Les indicateurs juridiques serviront d’outils d’aide à la décision, notamment pour procéder à des réformes en connaissance de cause et non plus à l’aveuglette.

La méthode mathématique utilisée permet, à partir d’un questionnaire mettant en avant toutes les étapes juridiques et institutionnelles de l’application des textes juridiques, de fournir des données soulignant les points à améliorer et les points forts de l’application du droit.

Cette mise à jour d’un premier ouvrage de 2018 publié par l’Institut de la Francophonie pour le développement durable (IFDD) a été rendue possible grâce à l’appui de la Chaire d’excellence Normandie pour la paix (CNRS, Région Normandie, Maison de la recherche en sciences humaines (MRSH) et de l’Université de Caen - France). Une ligne de recherche est dédiée à cette thématique des indicateurs juridiques et la Chaire d’excellence formule le vœu d’une large diffusion de cet ouvrage accessible en open access en anglais, français et en espagnol.