This study turned the tables on a conventional understanding of the four instruments of national power (diplomacy, information, military and economic measures/D.I.M.E.) to see how potential adversaries could use these against the national security interests of Canada and the United States. Moreover, this particular work focuses on qualitative research regarding cyber threats that have continually beleaguered these nations by malevolent actors mostly over the last five years. This study also affords consideration to how nefarious individuals, non-state actors, or nation states can implement the instruments of national power through the application of a new model named the York Intelligence Red Team Model-Cyber (YIRTM-C) using sources guided by the Federal Qualitative Secondary Data Case Study Triangulation Model to arrive at results.
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John Michael Weaver and Benjamin T. Johnson
Edited by Tiffany N. Florvil and Vanessa D. Plumly
New Perspectives on the Veintena Festivals
Edited by Élodie Dupey García and Elena Mazzetto
This book explores a seminal topic concerning the Mesoamerican past: the religious festivals that took place during the eighteen periods of twenty days, or veintenas, into which the solar year was divided. Pre-Columbian societies celebrated these festivals through complex rituals, involving the priests and gods themselves, embodied in diverse beings and artifacts. Specific sectors of society also participated in the festivals, while city inhabitants usually attended public ceremonies. As a consequence, this ritual cycle played a significant role in Mesoamerican religious life; at the same time, it informs us about social relations in pre-Columbian societies. Both religious and social aspects of the solar cycle festivals are tackled in the twelve contributions in this book, which aims to address the entire veintena sequence and as much of the territory and history of Mesoamerica as possible. Specifically, the book revisits long-standing discussions of the solar cycle festivals, but also explores these religious practices in original ways, in particular through investigating understudied rituals and offering new interpretations of rites that have previously been extensively analyzed. Other chapters consider the entire veintena sequence through the prism of specific topics, providing multiple though often complementary analyses. As a consequence, this book will attract the attention of scholars and graduate students with interests in Mesoamerica and early Latin America, as well as ethnohistory, cultural history, history of religions, art history, archaeology and anthropology.
Kangzhi Zhang and Qianyou Zhang
Modern Chinese Government is a primer on Chinese government, taking the government's changes and expansions throughout history as two dimensions along which to introduce its formation and development, its organizational structure and authoritative framework, and the scope of its functions. Furthermore, this book looks ahead to the future prospects of China's government. Overall, it aims to give readers a comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of Chinese government.
Community Engagement Strategies for Communication Scholarship and Practice
Edited by Peter M. Kellett, Stacey L. Connaughton and George Cheney
This inaugural volume in the Peter Lang book series on Conflict and Peacebuilding brings together works that richly depict the tensions between the promise and reality of applying communication principles and theories to conflict transformation and peacebuilding around the world and in the United States. Each chapter provides concrete examples of the doing of engaged scholarship in this context. Chapter contributors explain how their on-the-ground work has contributed to theorizing in communication and beyond as well as to conflict transformation and peacebuilding practice. Importantly, they also unearth the challenges in designing and implementing techniques and practices. As a collection, this edited volume underscores the communicative nature of conflict transformation and peacebuilding in particular, and engaged scholarship, in general. The collection also reveals tensions in doing engaged scholarship that are applicable to other contexts beyond conflict transformation and peacebuilding.
Cesáreo Rodríguez-Aguilera de Prat
Why are a United States of Europe, in theory and abstract the most rational option, practically impossible today? This book analyses the contradiction implied in having enormous world-level potential whilst lacking the force to execute this due to the current structural limitations of the European Union. It examines the principal historical background to the idea of a federal Europe and its successive achievements after the European Community was constituted. It also aims to show how a union has been shaped where supranational and intergovernmental impulses coexist in a contradictory way. The Great Recession of 2008 and the refugee crisis of 2015 have also posed ever more profound challenges to European integration. Eurosceptic and Europhobic forces that encourage nationalist withdrawal and opt for recipes of authoritarian populism are taking advantage of the errors and hesitancy of the community "establishment". After describing and interpreting the context and results of the crucial elections to the European Parliament in 2019, the programmes of the main parties in the six most populated states of the union are analysed. This takes the form of a questionnaire regarding the greater or lesser degree of integration advocated by each state, providing a highly representative picture of the great plurality of existing options. Lastly, it includes a chapter on the constitution of the Von der Leyen Commission, the finalisation of Brexit and the serious crisis the European Union has faced due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Edited by Virginia L. Lewis
This autobiographical narrative provides a unique personal account of the life of a Volga German under the Bolshevik Revolution and subsequent famine, agricultural collectivization, and Stalinist regime with its persecution of minorities including ethnic Germans in the Soviet Union. The fact that its author, master miller Heinrich Neuwirt (1902-1953), survived as long as he did is a testimony to the resourcefulness, determination to survive, and capacity to endure hardship he evinced as he was repeatedly ensnared in Stalin’s net, imprisoned, enslaved, and finally sent to the Russian front in a penal army. Neuwirt only managed to produce his account as a result of finding refuge in West Germany after the war, and although the manuscript made it to Volga German relatives in the United States, nothing came of publication efforts since it was written in German. The value of this manuscript lies in its first-person documentation of Volga German life under Stalin. German professor and literary scholar Virginia L. Lewis has rendered Neuwirt’s original German account into faithful English translation.
The Power of the First Lady Governor
Laura Merrifield Wilson
les commissions d’historiens dans les processus de rapprochement (Pologne-Allemagne, Pologne-Russie)
Cet ouvrage analyse le travail des commissions d’historiens dans les processus de rapprochement en Pologne. Deux d’entre elles sont privilégiées : la commission polono-allemande portant sur les manuels scolaires et le groupe polono-russe sur les questions difficiles. Cette étude se fonde sur deux sources principales : une série d’entretiens et des recherches dans les archives, auxquelles s’ajoutent des ressources complémentaires : observations participantes et analyse de discours politiques, de sondages et de la presse. Le dialogue sur l’histoire auquel d’aucuns font appel correspond tout à fait à ce qui est demandé aux commissions d’historiens. Dès lors, pourquoi ces commissions ont-elles été créées ? Comment fonctionnent-elles et pourquoi continuent-elles de fonctionner ? Nous formons les hypothèses que, premièrement, ces commissions ont été créées dans un objectif de rapprochement, voire de réconciliation. Deuxièmement, leur fonctionnement — et sa prolongation — dépend de trois variables : le contexte, les mandats, les acteurs.
Cet ouvrage s’articule en cinq axes. Les trois premières parties portent sur chacune des trois variables évoquées : contexte, mandats, acteurs. La quatrième partie concerne les sphères d’influence de ces commissions et les débats qu’elles engendrent : politique et religion, débats publics, débats scientifiques. La dernière partie se concentre sur les projets de ces commissions : l’ouvrage commun ou les centres de dialogue du côté polono-russe, le manuel commun d’histoire du côté polono-allemand. Au travers de toutes ces pratiques, les commissions d’historiens cherchent, dans le cadre de la transformation des conflits, à réconcilier par l’histoire, c’est du moins l’un des arguments défendus dans cet ouvrage.