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African Isms

Africa and the Globalized World

Edited by Abdul Karim Bangura

The impetus for this book emerged from our belief that as Africans across the globe are confronted with a myriad of challenges that have been birthed by globalization (i.e. the process of going to a more interconnected world by diminishing the world’s social dimension and expansion of overall global consciousness), they must turn to their own ideas for solutions. While many books exist on individual African Isms, such as Afrocentrism, Nasserism, and Pan-Africanism, none exists that has looked at a series of these Isms together. This book is the first to do so and, thus, its justification. Consequently, through this edited volume, we address the applicability of different African Isms to various issues, particularly current issues, on the continent of Africa. Each chapter provides a theoretical framework and topics or issues concerning African people of the continent. It is therefore an innovative scholarly work as no other work has examined these Isms in this manner. Thus, the ideas are quite appealing. Reexamining and applying each of the African Ism in order to challenge Eurocentric myth and reality in current African political, economic, cultural and social matters is quite logical and clear.

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Identity of a Muslim Family in Colonial Bengal

Between Memories and History

Mohammad Rashiduzzaman

Blended with the author’s own family remembrances and diverse sources including his doctoral and post-doctoral research and fieldwork, this is a recounting of ural Muslim historiography in Colonial Bengal, a largely ignored swathe in the dominant chronicles of South Asia. Between the twilight of the 19th century and nearly the first half of the 20th century, the Muslims in Colonial Bengal in India were haunted by misgivings about an alien rule and its cohorts. Resistance to change, self-denial, religiosity, the conflicting urges of survival, the spiraling Hindu-Muslim discord, the feudal constraints and marginalization by the bhadralok swirled around them. The British Indian Bengal wracked by religious, cultural, social, and political conflicts come alive in the intergenerational narrative in this book. With its 9 main chapters plus a preface and introduction, this volume seeks out ordinary individuals' lives amidst such turmoil while it amplifies the larger challenges of the Muslims in Bengal. This gripping true-life account is set against such a sweep of history; it is built around real people—not about imagined characters.

Not rigidly structured, this multi-layered account has used wider and flexible methods of research. The village-focused and memory-based tale evokes the concrete historical, social, and political trajectory that confronted the Muslims in Colonial Bengal—an out-of-the narrative in the conventional history and social science books on the region. Authored by an academician and a well-published scholar on South Asia, this is a meticulous, insightful, and comprehensive portrait of a rural Muslim family in a historical context. It addresses scholars, students, and specialists as well as general readers about a rural Muslim family’s existential challenges intertwined with history, society, political conflicts, identity, and religiosity. Conjoined by the known historical context and backed by reliable oral narratives, qualitative interviews, authentic memoirs, and scholarly sources, this is not a chronological autobiographical memoir. Relevant to the academics and interesting to avid readers, this account touches several disciplines from history and politics to anthropology as well as the probing readers.

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Le Muscle et l’Esprit

Masculinités germano-juives dans la post-migration : Le cas des yekkes en Palestine / Israël après 1933

Series:

Patrick Farges

En 1933, le régime nazi mit en place une politique de discrimination puis de persécution des citoyens juifs du Reich, qui contraignit des milliers de personnes à la migration forcée vers diverses destinations, dont la Palestine sous mandat britannique (qui deviendra Israël en 1948). Cette migration des années 1930 est parfois appelée « cinquième aliyah » dans l’historiographie israélienne. Pour ces personnes, l’adaptation post-migratoire fut complexe : la migration représenta une rupture importante, affectant tant les liens sociaux que l’identité culturelle et les représentations genrées. Relationnelle, multidimensionnelle et intersectionnelle, l’histoire des masculinités intègre différentes formes de domination : domination des hommes sur les femmes, domination de certains hommes sur d’autres hommes, mais aussi rapports de domination sociale et raciale. Ce sont ces intersections sociales complexes, ainsi que l’influence des différentes formes de nationalisme (du nationalisme antisémite exacerbé en Allemagne jusqu’au projet sioniste) sur l’injonction à agir « en homme », qui sont au cœur de l’ouvrage.

Après le nazisme et la Shoah, il est devenu difficile de penser ensemble identité juive et allemande. Par bien des aspects pourtant, les Juifs germanophones en Palestine/Israël (désignés par le terme yekkes) ont maintenu une identité distincte. L’un des défis fut de satisfaire aux exigences du programme genré du sionisme, marqué par une obsession de la régénérescence virile et un état de guerre quasi-permanent, conduisant à survaloriser les conduites martiales. Or la majorité des hommes de la « cinquième aliyah » ne correspondaient en rien à l’idéal du pionnier (halouts) ni du « Nouveau Juif » sionistes, et certains parmi les yekkes – hommes et femmes – ne pouvaient pas ne pas voir à quel point ce nationalisme viriliste exacerbé ressemblait à celui qui les avait chassés d’Europe.

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Military Resources and International War

A Statistical Theory of Interconnected Conflict

Jeffrey Alan Carnegie

Do leaders make war decisions individually or do they consider other ongoing conflicts? Most researchers assume dyadic independence out of convenience. In Military Resource Division, Dr. Carnegie presents evidence that this is a faulty assumption. First, he develops a formal theory in which limited military resources act as a constraint on the ability of leaders to engage in international conflicts. Country leaders consider plan accordingly by considering the entire picture of conflicts. This theory, in contrast to dyadic dependence, implies a different data-generating process for international conflicts. Second, he tests both theories using summary statistics, network analysis, and logistic regression. All three methods show strong support for military resource division theory. He further shows that the dependent effects change with time, even when controlling for polarity. The effects also differ between regions, which implies cultural factors at work. Third, he suggests for the future that researchers use multiple methods to account for different types of dependencies, because no single method can address them all. He shows how to make the best use of logistic regression and social network analysis for conflict statistics. He offers suggestions to policy makers for how best to incorporate this theory in analysis. Finally, he concludes by comparing predictions of the two theories regarding conflicts for the United States, especially Iran and North Korea. This book will be of interest to conflict researchers in academia and government who want to better understand the effect of coalitions on modern warfare.

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Poland and the Origins of the Second World War

A Study in Diplomatic History (1938–1939)

Marek Kornat

This monograph deals with Polish foreign policy shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War. In tracing the diplomatic activity of foreign minister Józef Beck, it discusses six general problems: (1) the Polish political situation under the pressure of appeasement; (2) the project of Intermarium and efforts to implement it; (3) the action against Czechoslovakia and the conflict with the Soviet Union; (4) the Polish attitude towards the German concept of Gesamtlosung in Germany’s relations with Poland; (5) the genesis of the Polish alliance with Great Britain; (6) the Allies’ military inaction after Nazi Germany’s aggression. In these conditions, Poland made four key decisions: it stood against Czechoslovakia, it rejected German demands, it allied itself with the United Kingdom, and it rejected the Soviet Union’s claim for the Red Army to march across Polish lands.

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Edited by Joy R. Bostic, Itumeleng Mothoagae and Tamelyn Tucker-Worgs

Black Religious Landscaping in Africa and the United States uses the prism of spatial theory to explore various aspects of Black landscapes on the African continent and Black Atlantic diasporic locations. The volume explores the ways in which Black people in Africa and in the Diaspora have identified obstacles and barriers to Black freedoms and have constructed counter-landscapes in response to these obstacles. The chapters in the book present diverse representations of the Black creative impulse to form religious landscapes and construct social, economic and political spaces that are habitable for Black people and Black bodies. These landscapes and spaces are physical, psychological and conceptual. They are gendered and racialized in ways that are shaped by their specific religious, geographic and socio-historical contexts. These contexts are influenced by colonial systems and institutions of modern slavery. The landscapes that people of African descent struggle to construct, reshape and inhabit are intended to counter the effects of these oppressive systems and institutions and often include attempts to reclaim and adapt sources, concepts, tools and techniques that are indigenous to specific geographical contexts or ethno-racial groups. The contributors hope in this volume to offer a look at how the cartographic struggles and constructive engagements within these Black-inhabited spaces are rooted in Black movements that support the emancipation of Black lives and Black bodies from the oppressive forces of dominant geographies.

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Edited by Przemysław Waingertner

This book begins a series of publications devoted to political reflection on the integration of Central and Eastern Europe with the participation, or even under the aegis, of Poland. The attempts to make it happen have lasted from the late nineteenth to the outset of the twenty-first century. The idea of organized order in the central and eastern part of the continent that aimed to ensure the security of Poland and stability of the region, took various forms: from Piłsudski's federation concept through the Intermarium and the idea of Giedroyc’s ULB to the Three Seas Initiative promoted by Poland in recent years. The vitality and diversity of this idea is undoubtedly a historical phenomenon, which has become the subject of analyses of well-known Polish historians and political scientists in this volume.

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Edited by Przemysław Waingertner

This publication discusses economic relations connecting Poland with other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In order to clarify this matter, the authors began with a methodological outline, and then presented an analysis of economic history and trade relations in the region. They also took up the subject of geo-economics and cooperation models in Central Europe. The outline is complemented by an analysis of the role of the most important Polish figures of economic life and their economic concepts of cooperation with neighbours. These issues constituted an extremely important aspect of the twentieth century integration proposals, which also have significance today.

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Edited by Przemysław Waingertner

This is another publication from the series devoted to Polish political reflection on the integration of Central and Eastern Europe. The reader will find here texts of historians, political scientists, and experts in the field of international relations. The texts concern relations between Poland and Poles, and the nations of Central and Eastern Europe: Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania encompassing the period from the late nineteenth to the beginning of the twenty-first century. Apart from the facts concerning mutual relations between Warsaw, Budapest, Prague, Bratislava, and Bucharest, the authors discuss also their outset – Polish concepts shaping relations with Magyars, Czechs, Slovaks, and Romanians and their sovereign states that regained independence in the twentieth century.

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Garrison State Hegemony in U.S. Politics

A Critical Ethnohistory of Corruption and Power in the World's Oldest 'Democracy'

Robert A. Williams

Guided by Gramsci’s question of why so many victims support the labyrinth of their oppression, Williams queries garrison state machinations in electioneering to promote hegemony. This pioneering ethnography explores the role and function of the U.S. garrison state in U.S. electioneering through participant observation of America’s largest third party – the Libertarian Party (LP) – as a window to wider sociocultural dynamics of covert power in U.S. politics. Some three decades of insider membership roles within Libertarian Party electioneering combined with two years of doctoral fieldwork provide an ethnographic window into cultural hegemony in U.S. electoral politics and sociological analysis of the information warfare that sustains it.

Anchored in original and extensive participant observation including interviews and surveys, this ethnography of USA’s sociologically understudied Libertarian Party (LP) probes the power of cultural hegemony to constrain human agency in electioneering. Through a privileged membership point of view by becoming the phenomenon, the author provides a critically reflective analysis of the sociocultural context in which LP electioneering unfolds. Membership roles in Libertarian electioneering range from donors to candidates, from volunteers to party officials, and from anti-authoritarian libertarians to authoritarian conservatives. Exploring its transition from a radical anti-establishment party to a party more in line with mainstream opinion, Williams shows how a member's relations of shared cultural logics constrain her or his behavior to ultimately reproduce garrison state social practices.