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Moustapha Fall

This book examines literacy education in Senegal. It assesses some of the impacts of French policies on the overall Senegalese system of education, including some of the language policies championed by a cohort of Senegalese authorities from 1960 until 2012. It begins with a definition of the concept of literacy education in general to briefly set the scene of the early resistance this encountered in West Africa particularly in Senegal. It discusses the major language policies undertaken by presidents Leopold Sedar Senghor, Abdou Diouf, and Abdoulaye Wade. Finally, the book assesses the major impacts of France's literacy policies on the current system of education in Senegal and proposes solutions on how to help Senegal and the rest of the West African countries put in place a rigorous literacy education that benefits their population.

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Relatar la catástrofe en el Siglo de Oro

Entre noticia y narración

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Gennaro Schiano

Entre los numinosos y admirables acontecimientos relatados por las relaciones de sucesos de época áurea, los desastres de origen natural destacan por cobrar un notable eco mediático. En efecto, la inédita atracción por las catástrofes no solo se debe a la compleja evolución del público, con su imaginario, de la así nombrada ‘cultura de cordel’, sino también al cambio radical que se dio en la percepción, la interpretación y la narración de los tiempos calamitosos. A partir de la individuación de los rasgos que conforman la narración reportera de la catástrofe – concretamente, sus armazones retóricos y estilísticos, sin descuidar su conexión con los demás géneros literarios –, el propósito de este libro consiste en indagar de qué manera la cultura de la época se apodera y llega a asumir el ‘desastre’ como categoría fenoménica, atribuyéndole el variado acervo de significados que solo un atento rastreo textual consiente elicitar.

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Star Trek and Popular Culture

Television at the Frontier of Social and Political Change in the 1960s

George A. Gonzalez

The 1960s (a.k.a. the 60s) remains a terrain of contemporary politics—with the values of period embraced or rejected, as well as differently interpreted. Popular culture is an important means to understand and analyze the political issues and controversies surrounding the 60s—egalitarianism, equality (civil rights, feminism), as well as anti-communism. In important and key instances popular culture (especially Star Trek [1966-1969]) was at the forefront of the progressive politics of the 60s. This book engages and analyzes the ongoing 60s through popular culture. The 60s is a pivotal period in American and world history—as the United States during this time turned away from white supremacy as official ideology. Also, the American public decidedly soured on U.S. military adventurism—as evidenced by broad public opposition to a military draft. Additionally, women (as a result of the feminism of the era) gained greater access to the public sphere and increased personal autonomy—non-discrimination (and anti-harassment) rules, abortion rights, and no fault divorce. Popular culture is philosophically significant because it allows people to cogitate reasons in the world—especially in the social, political realm. The creators of popular culture will often seek to offer the public authentic art, and much of the public seeks out authentic art. This makes American popular culture (in its finer forms) a viable source material about reason in the world.  In this book the author doesn't  seek to deconstruct popular culture; instead, he seeks to identify and analyze the reasons in the world depicted in it.
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The Ten Pillars of American Democracy

Has the United States Become a Pseudo-Democracy?

Michael Haas

Democracy rests on ten pillars. However, they have fallen in the United States because both major political parties have strayed from the concept of government of the people, by the people, and for the people. One party wants to recreate life in the past, while the other party appeals to the economic self-interest of specific groups. The coup on January 6, 2021, has prompted a fundamental analysis of what has gone wrong, but proposed corrections have failed to strengthen belief in democracy.

The fundamental pillars are of two types—preconditions and the structure of government. The preconditions are a strong middle and working class, belief in liberal and social democracy, an informed citizenry, a vibrant civil society, and a Constitution prescribing equal justice. Governments must have legislatures with integrity, an independent and competent bureaucracy and civil society, an executive who acts with civility, and free and fair elections. In each case, the trend had been away from democracy.

According to the Mass Society Paradigm, democracy works best when the voices of the people are aggregated into coherent programs by political parties, which seek majority approval and then demand action by government to solve problems, with the information media performing an oversight over the political process and government actions. But in the United States, some individuals are so cultural desperate that they have supported politicians favoring extreme measures to end democracy by paying attention to alternative concepts of reality. If ever achieved, corrective measures will take decades.

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Theology and Science in the Thought of Ian Barbour

A Thomistic Evaluation for the Catholic Doctrine of Creation

Joseph R. Laracy

This book is an important new study on the thought of the late Professor Ian Graeme Barbour (1923–2013). Barbour was a prominent American theologian and physicist who served for many years on the faculty of Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, USA. His highly significant research on the relationship between theology and science led to an invitation to deliver the esteemed Gifford Lectures in Scotland (1989–1991) and won him the prestigious Templeton Prize in 1999. In this monograph, Joseph R. Laracy analyzes Ian Barbour’s distinctive approach to the relationship between theology and science, largely unexplored in the Catholic tradition, according to fundamental theological criteria. He investigates the possibility for Barbour’s epistemic, metaphysical, and theological principles to enrich the dialogue and integration (to use Barbour’s terms) of the Catholic doctrine of creation with the natural sciences. Throughout the monograph, substantial reference is made to Saint Thomas Aquinas, as a Catholic "monument" to the doctrine of creation in particular, and more generally, the beneficial interaction of natural philosophy, metaphysics, and revealed theology.

This book will likely be of interest to graduate students and scholars in the fields of fundamental and systematic theology, religion and science, the philosophy of science, and the history of science.

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The protagonist of the novel Zárate, Santos Zárate was a historical figure. A Venezuelan highwayman with a stronghold in the forest of Güere, he terrorized the valleys of Aragua for some twelve years. The action of the novel takes place in 1825, a few years after Venezuela had sealed its independence from Spain by defeating the Spanish forces at the Battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821). At this time, General Francisco José de Paula Santander was vice president of the Gran Colombia, the conglomerate of Colombia and Venezuela that had fought Spain for its freedom. General José Antonio Páez governed the Venezuelan region, with his headquarters in Valencia. The entire nation readied itself to confront the great scourge of the times—the terrible and feared marauders that sowed apprehension and terror among the residents of the valleys of Aragua.

There is in the novel the exaltation of an elite agrarian way of life, idyllic, edenic, that contrasts vividly with the violence of life in the llanos and, especially, with the activities of the highwaymen. Moreover, there is a delicate love story that develops pari passu with the official activities of the main protagonists. The development of the female characters may seem a bit quaint for today’s tastes, though they are beautiful and carefully drawn. An irrepressible humor, at times subtle, pervades the entire novel.

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Edited by Nihan Akıncılar Köseoğlu and Dilhan Öztamur

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Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht

Ein Beitrag zum Zusammenwirken der Kontrollinstrumente im Befristungsrecht nach der Schuldrechtsmodernisierung

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Maximilian Otto Houf

In dieser Publikation werden zunächst die Möglichkeiten der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht dargestellt. Sodann widmet sich der Autor den Grenzen der Vertragsgestaltung im Befristungsrecht durch den Gesetzgeber und die Rechtsprechung. Behandelt werden Fragen des Befristungsrechts des gesamten Arbeitsvertrages sowie einzelner Vertragsbedingungen. Das Augenmerk richtet sich auf das Zusammenwirken des TzBfG mit der AGB-Kontrolle, insbesondere im Lichte des Transparenzgebots. Ein umfassender Teil beschäftigt sich mit der Rechtsprechung zur sachgrundlosen Befristung nach § 14 II TzBfG sowie rechtspolitischen Vorhaben der Bundesregierung der 19. Legislaturperiode.

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Texte und Medien

Linguistische Zugänge zu Textmanifestationen in medialen Spielräumen

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Edited by Dorota Kaczmarek, Marcin Michoń and Dariusz Prasalski

Die Kommunikationsformen in den alten und insbesondere in den neuen Medien unterliegen einem ständigen Wandel, der sich etwa dadurch manifestiert, dass völlig neue Textsorten entstehen oder die Gebrauchskonventionen einzelner, für die jeweilige Textklasse typischer Sprachzeichen modifiziert werden. Mit der Entwicklung der Medien und ihren neuen Erscheinungsformen gehen auch neue Methoden und technische Lösungen der Überwindung von Barrieren einher. Sie erlauben es, die Kommunikation über kulturelle, sprachliche Grenzen sowie Behinderungen der an ihr Teilnehmenden hinauszutragen.

Ziel dieser Publikation ist es, exemplarisch zu zeigen, welche Formen der Wandel annimmt, wie er funktional zu beschreiben ist und welcher Stellenwert ihm in medialen Spielräumen zukommt. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes geben also vielfältige, theoretische und empirische Einblicke in derartige Veränderungen. Dabei werden solche Aspekte aufgegriffen wie Textsortenmerkmale von Videorezensionen [Textsorten im intermedialen Vergleich], Selbstdarstellung [in Hypertexten], Multimodalität [von Memes und Karikaturen], Verwendung von Hashtags, Witztechniken, Authentizitätsstrategien [in Restaurantkritiken], Hassrede [im Wahlkampfdiskurs], Audiodeskription [von Dokumentarfilmen] und Klangfiguren [in Kindergedichten].

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Edited by Susanne Tienken, Stefan Hauser, Hartmut Lenk and Martin Luginbühl

Die Medienlinguistik ist seit einiger Zeit eine etablierte Disziplin im deutschsprachigen Raum. Dabei stellt gerade im Kontext kulturanalytischer Fragestellungen das Prinzip der Kontrastivität einen zentralen Bezugspunkt dar: Mediale Praktiken sind in der Regel so selbstverständlich, dass sie oft unsichtbar bleiben und so in ihrer Charakteristik schwer erkennbar sind. Methoden des Vergleichens und der Kontrastierung ermöglichen es, die Spezifik medialer Praktiken zu ergründen. Dieser Sammelband vertieft die Reflexion über qualitative und quantitative Ansätze im Rahmen einer kontrastiven Medienlinguistik, die heuristisch validiert und ethisch befriedigend sind. Die Beiträge exemplifizieren das Thema im Kontext verschiedener Medien (z. B. WhatsApp-Kommunikation, YouTube-Filme, Diskussionsforen, digitale Restaurantkritiken, Tweets, Live-Ticker, Zeitungsrubriken, Radioformate etc.) und verbinden so empirische Beobachtungen mit theoretischen und methodologischen Überlegungen.