The Justice and Development Party (AKP), the ruling political Islamists of Turkey since 2002, has been using the doctrine of necessity to legitimize human rights violations. Recep Tayyip Erdogan, president of Turkey, founder of the AKP and leader of the political Islamists, demands unconditional obedience and full control of the state. Under his leadership, the AKP government has shut down all opposing media, schools and universities and put thousands of people in prisons based on a manipulation of the necessity doctrine. In the political context, hardships are interpreted as obstacles on the way of the political Islamists towards holding absolute power in the state. Therefore, they use this "necessity" concept as a means to preserve their political power against all potential threats after taking full control of the state. According to the political Islamists, minority groups can be sacrificed for the benefit of the majority. Their properties can be usurped and their lives can be terminated. In moderate Islamic understanding, the state and the ruler are in the service of Muslims, not the other way around. For political Islamists, the state and the ruler (the caliph) are considered so sacred that they need to be protected against all opponents. In order to protect the state against internal and external "infidels" the caliph can resort to unlawful means because the necessity doctrine makes the forbidden things permissible. In this book, the author analyzes the concept of necessity and its exploitation by the political Islamists.
A Companion Anthology
Edited by Brett Zimmerman
Edited by Feridoon Koohi-Kamali
This book explores Latin American inequality broadly in terms of its impact on the regions development and specifically with two country studies from Peru on earnings inequality and child labor as a consequence of inequality for child labor. The first chapter provides substantial recent undated analysis of the critical thesis of deindustrialization for Latin America. The second chapter provides an approach to measuring labor market discrimination that departs from the current treatment of unobservable influences in the literature. The third chapterr examines a much-neglected topic of child labor using a panel data set specifically on children.
The book is appropriate for courses on economic development, labor economics courses and those interested in inequality, development and applied econometrics.
Edited by Jean Archibald and Marie Moran
Wars, Globalization and Japanese Theorizings in the Extended Twentieth Century
This book discusses Japan's international relations prior to 1945 with its focus on war and after 1945 during the Cold War era with its focus on globalization and also examines Japan’s international relations as an academic discipline. Part I describes and analyzes (1) how modern Japan coped with the coerced opening of the country, (2) how major powers aspired and alternated their hegemonic positions in East Asia in the extended twentieth century and (3) how global politics has been evolving with the three distinctive paradigms: the Westphalian, Philadelphian and Anti-Utopian. Part II describes and analyzes (1) how Japan foresees the future on the eve of the Cold War: the metamorphosis from Pax Americana Phase II to Pax Consortis, (2) how Japan envisages regionalism in Asia with sub-nationally and functionally articulated ideas for East and Southeast Asia, (3) Japan’s 21st century manifesto of foreign policy is presented as the best mix of classical realism, transformative pragmatism and liberal internationalism and (4) Japan’s manifesto as an Asian state is to deploy manufacturing/technological statecraft on the basis of East Asian peace. Part III focuses on theorizings of international relations from various angles. In light of hyperglobalization, theorizing global politics (as distinguished from international politics) is called for with two latest studies on global quasi-legislative politics and typology of Asian societies given as examples.
Narrating Theories of Resistance
A Socio-constructivist Perspective
This book examines the complex issues of student teachers’ professional learning in the unique while worthwhile context of underserved schools in English language teacher education, against the backdrop of preparing 21st-century teachers who can work with all students. Drawing on a socio-constructivist perspective, this book explores student teachers’ learning outcomes, learning processes, and influencing factors of their learning during the placement in underserved schools. Learning outcomes are presented by disseminating student teachers’ development in various categories of practical knowledge, including knowledge of self, knowledge of context, knowledge of curriculum, subject matter knowledge, knowledge of instruction, knowledge of English teachers and the teaching profession, as well as knowledge of interpersonal relationships. Learning processes are revealed that student teachers learn by broadening, consolidating, deepening, and developing practical knowledge in the upward spiral with individual knowledge categories, and by integrating practical knowledge from different knowledge categories. Additionally, different factors have influenced the professional learning experiences, including student teachers’ practical knowledge before teaching practicums, critical incidents happened during teaching practicum, student teachers’ observant and reflective stances, the underserved school settings, people involved in the practicums, and the student teachers’ goals for taking part in the practicums.
The Struggle of Bosnian and Rwandan Diaspora Communities in the United States
Claudine A. Kuradusenge-McLeod
The book concentrates on the construction of the trans-generational understanding of labels of victim and perpetrator in contemporary society, investigating their impact on the diasporic consciousness of Rwandan and Bosnian communities in the United States, as well as their political participation and involvement. The book challenges the common assumption that the notion of trauma belongs almost exclusively to the victim, often leaving descendants of the perpetrator ignored and blamed through multiple generations. The comprehensive analysis in this book is rooted in both the author’s experience as survivor of genocide, and her deep understanding of the various social and political dynamics that shape the lives of immigrant communities.
The Urban Experience of Post-War West Berlin
A Thomistic Evaluation for the Catholic Doctrine of Creation
Joseph R. Laracy
This book is an important new study on the thought of the late Professor Ian Graeme Barbour (1923–2013). Barbour was a prominent American theologian and physicist who served for many years on the faculty of Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota, USA. His highly significant research on the relationship between theology and science led to an invitation to deliver the esteemed Gifford Lectures in Scotland (1989–1991) and won him the prestigious Templeton Prize in 1999. In this monograph, Joseph R. Laracy analyzes Ian Barbour’s distinctive approach to the relationship between theology and science, largely unexplored in the Catholic tradition, according to fundamental theological criteria. He investigates the possibility for Barbour’s epistemic, metaphysical, and theological principles to enrich the dialogue and integration (to use Barbour’s terms) of the Catholic doctrine of creation with the natural sciences. Throughout the monograph, substantial reference is made to Saint Thomas Aquinas, as a Catholic "monument" to the doctrine of creation in particular, and more generally, the beneficial interaction of natural philosophy, metaphysics, and revealed theology.
This book will likely be of interest to graduate students and scholars in the fields of fundamental and systematic theology, religion and science, the philosophy of science, and the history of science.