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Edited by Dirk Rohmann, Jörg Ulrich and Margarita Vallejo Girvés

This volume explores how forced movement and exile of clerics developed over time and ultimately came to shape interactions between the late-antique Roman Empire, the Byzantine, post-Roman, and early medieval worlds. It investigates the politics and legal mechanics of ecclesiastical exile, the locations associated with life in exile, both in literary sources and in material culture, as well as the multitude of strategies which ancient and early medieval authors, and the exiles themselves, employed to create historical narratives of banishment. The chapters are revised versions of papers given at international conferences held at the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, the German Historical Institute London, and the University of Alcalá in 2016 and 2017.

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The Idea of Excellence and Human Enhancement

Reconsidering the Debate on Transhumanism in Light of Moral Philosophy and Science

Edited by Adriana Warmbier

This book analyses recent moves in the debate over human enhancement from two different perspectives: moral philosophy and science. It contains not only the thorough consideration on the promise, limitations, and perils of biotechnological improvement, but also offers a lucid account of a systematic evolution of the idea of excellence from antiquity to the present-day project of the post-human condition. The book examines various approaches to the key anthropological concepts such as agency, autonomy, practical rationality, and normativity pointing out their relevance to the philosophical and biomedical research. All these issues are addressed by scholars representing different fields of study including philosophy, law, biophysics, and cognitive science. They attempt to answer the question of whether biotechnological interventions may result in bringing about a better person.

«The collection of articles is unified by the main idea - human enhancement, the challenge that has been brought about by recent developments in neuroscience, genetics, and biotechnology and that is reflected upon by the authors from different angles of perception and argumentation stemming from different philosophical views. The book is of great educational value as it can be used by students of philosophy, medicine, law, education and all those interested in the field, as the basis for well-grounded arguments and discussions, as well as raising their awareness.»

Prof. Roma Kriaučiūnienė, Vilnius University

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Der Kampf um Gläubige und Kinder

Das Mischehenwesen im Rheinland im 19. Jahrhundert. Band 2

Volker Speth

Die Konfessionsverschiedenheit von Ehegatten und die daraus resultierende Frage nach der konfessionellen Beheimatung ihrer Kinder sorgten im 19. Jahrhundert für viele Konflikte innerhalb der Familien, zwischen den Konfessionen und zwischen der katholischen Kirche und dem preußischen Staat. Die strengkatholische Mischehendisziplin mit ihrem Kernelement, dem Versprechen der katholischen Kindererziehung als Bedingung für eine katholische Trauung, war ein Indikator für die Durchsetzung des Ultramontanismus innerhalb der katholischen Kirche und ein Motor für die Herausbildung eines katholischen Milieus. Sie war ein Hauptgrund für die Verschärfung der konfessionellen Spannungen, für die Rekonfessionalisierungstendenzen im 19. Jahrhundert und für die ‚Kölner Wirrenʽ. Sie veranlasste die evangelische Kirche, eine eigene einheitliche Mischehenzucht einzuführen.

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Alterität und ihr Anderes

Fallstudien zum Selbst-, Welt- und Gottesverhältnis bei Friedrich D. E. Schleiermacher und Martin Luther

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Rinja Müller

Das typologische Spektrum der Denkformen von Alterität ist breit. Es erstreckt sich zwischen leerer Gleichheit und unzugänglicher Fremdheit. Eine besondere Zuspitzung erfährt das Thema in der Theologie im Gottesgedanken. Das Buch behandelt diesen Problemzusammenhang anhand von Fallstudien zu Schleiermacher und Luther. Bei der Interpretation geht es zugleich um die Frage nach Genese und Quellen von Alterität in übergreifenden Zusammenhängen. Im Mittelpunkt stehen hierbei die großen theologischen Gegensatzverhältnisse zwischen Gott und Sünde im Horizont, ebenso die vielfältigen Differenzkorrelationen von Selbst und Welt. Dies findet eine Zuspitzung in der Fokussierung von Entsprechungen zwischen Gottes-, Sozial- und Selbstverhältnissen: Theologie wird mit der Logik von Soziologie und Psychologie verknüpft.

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Eine andere Barmherzigkeit

Zum Verständnis der Erlösungslehre Anselms von Canterbury. 2., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage

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Gerhard Gäde

Die Erlösungslehre Anselms von Canterbury hat eine mächtige und auch negative Wirkungsgeschichte entfaltet. Sie gehört zu den bis heute umstrittensten und auch am meisten missverstandenen Theorien der Theologiegeschichte. Die Studie unternimmt den Versuch, die Soteriologie Anselms von dessen Gotteslehre her zu lesen. Das Gottesverständnis des Kirchenlehrers bietet den Schlüssel, um Cur Deus homo überraschend neu zu verstehen und die eigentlich problematische Rede von Erlösung vor der Vernunft zu verantworten. Erst wenn Gott als Mensch begegnet, kann man definitiv sinnvoll von Offenbarung und Erlösung sprechen. Zudem zeigt der Autor, dass die apologetische Zielsetzung Anselms gegenüber Juden und Muslimen seiner Zeit Cur Deus homo bereits als ein frühes Zeugnis einer Theologie der Religionen qualifiziert. Anselms Werk weist einen Weg aus der religionstheologischen Sackgasse aus Exklusivismus, Inklusivismus und Pluralismus, den man als «Interiorismus» (Christus in den Religionen) bezeichnen kann.

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Philosophy of Picture

Denis Diderot’s Salons

Maddalena Mazzocut-Mis

If it is true that a painting can ‘think visually’, then it is also true that Diderot was the first to say so - and he has spelled out this concept better than anyone else. Diderot’s Salons show that the ‘imaginal’ sense that arises from the engagement with a picture needs to be investigated using the concepts of ékphrasis and theatricality - the capacity to explore the power of pictures in relation to the composition of the scene, to the expressive and pantomimic gestures, and to what can be called a ‘theory of affections’.

The book will focus on an issue that pertains to the theory of pictures, on a question that is ground-breaking in the English-speaking academic context: how can we look at a picture in order to rethink aesthetics as a discipline that allows us to look at pictures from a philosophical point of view?

The Salons demonstrate that the ‘imaginal’ process leading to knowledge always emerges from the picture itself, and that this process always needs to be supported by a method of inquiry that can rightly be called a philosophical method - as Diderot was a philosopher himself. Even when approaching this issue from a contemporary perspective, this method should always be related to the concepts of ékphrasis and theatricality. Fundamental, however, is also the ‘pathetic’, the emotionally stimulating, due to its essential relation to the enjoyment of pictures - something rooted in aesthetic disinterestedness, absorption and, conversely, voyeurism.

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Cora Cruz

The Meditations of Manuel de la Vega addresses the "hard" problem of consciousness in a nonreductive way. Which is to say, the question is posited as to why, no matter how much structural or functional explanation we may devise, this does not quite satisfy attempts to grasp the essence, the "what it is like," of being an embodied consciousness. The book’s method aims to be faithful to its subject by its choice of format. It does not intend to offer fully articulated theory, as univocal argument, but to facilitate theory, over the course of several exemplars, and by way of various perspectives which in the end form a whole—albeit not a closed or finalized whole. While fully compatible with certain theories of consciousness, and while yet incorporating much theorizing itself, the book makes the point, by its example, that explanations of consciousness must not necessarily be theories and models, and that the mode in which theories are rendered may be only part, and perhaps not the most important part, of what consciousness "is" or "does." This is much in keeping with phenomenological methods, with the anthropological-genealogical approaches of existentialists, and with certain takes on aesthetics; in keeping also with the insights of post-structuralism, and yet it does not exclude (and may even complement) some current computational or neurophysiological models of consciousness.

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Evaluation of Acupuncture

An Intercultural and Interdisciplinary Approach

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Edited by Friedrich G. Wallner and Fengli Lan

This book is the latest publication of the international research group «Theory, Methodology, and Structure of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM),» which has been working since 2008. It outlines a methodology that is adequate for research on Classical Chinese Medicine, followed by a detailed and careful analysis of Evidence-Based Acupuncture and Mechanistic Studies of Acupuncture. The authors also analyze and discuss classical texts, hermeneutical treatments, historical studies, clinical trials, women’s diseases, lifestyle-related diseases, placebo effects, and Baomai and Baoluo. Leading experts from America, Austria, Brazil, China, Germany, and South Korea demonstrate that Chinese medicine is a scientific system that is independent from Western medicine.

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Beyond the Juxtaposition of Nature and Culture

Lawrence Krader, Interdisciplinarity, and the Concept of the Human Being

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Edited by Cyril Levitt and Sabine Sander

The essays contained in this collection represent an attempt by scholars from Canada, Germany and Mexico to come to grips with the innovative work of the American philosopher and anthropologist, Lawrence Krader (1919-1998) who has proposed nothing less than a new theory of nature according to which there are at least three different orders – the material-biotic, the quantum and the human order, which differ from one another according to their different configurations of space-time, and which cannot be reduced the one to the others. Each author takes up Krader’s theory in relation to its impact on their own discipline: sociology, anthropology, the study of myth, the theory of labor and value, economics, linguistics, and aesthetics. The question of how nature and culture can be integrated within a theoretical framework which links them in difference and nexus and allows each their non-reductive space leads each of the contributors to move in their thinking beyond the old dualisms of materialism and idealism, fact and value, nature and culture.

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Being and Belonging

A Comparative Examination of the Greek and Cypriot Orthodox Churches’ Attitudes to ‹Europeanisation› in Early 21st Century

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Georgios Trantas

This book examines and compares, from an interdisciplinary perspective of Religious Studies and International Relations, the conduct and rhetoric of the Orthodox Churches of Greece and Cyprus vis-à-vis the ‹Europeanisation› process. This study focuses on the conditionality of their «sense of belonging» in the European Union (EU) as their predisposition is dependent, in part, on their sense of «being», as well as on their perception of an ideal type of Europeanness. In this context, this book offers insights on how the Greek and Cypriot Churches, as soft power actors of domestic and European capacity, perceive Europeanness and Otherness; thereby, the compatibility of the personified Greek and Cypriot states with the EU as a post-Westphalian political-cultural entity comes into view.