The volume discusses the recent developments in selected countries of the Middle East and North Africa. Theoretical chapter presents the internal and external factors influencing the development and democratization processes. Based on these factors the authors analyze in depth the recent development in Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Palestine, Syria, Turkey and Yemen. The authors demonstrate that the recent development in these countries varied significantly, mostly due to the difference of the historical, political, economic, security or religious conditions in the relevant countries.
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Edited by Radka Havlová
Germany and England Compared
This book introduces an innovative theoretical framework to identify how different systems of government shape climate policymaking arrangements at the local level. It highlights how resource interdependencies and power relationships involving municipalities, higher tiers of government and other local actors shape urban governance in two case study cities: Newcastle upon Tyne, in England, and Gelsenkirchen, in Germany. By applying the framework to policymaking in three sectors (climate change strategy, planning and each council’s own corporate activities), the study shows how these relationships shape policy styles, objectives and outcomes at the local level. The book also reveals how urban policymaking arrangements in both Germany and England are evolving, as municipal governments seek to increase their capacity to address challenging policy problems whilst facing resource constraints.
This book was the runner-up in the 2017 Early Career Researcher Prize in German Studies, a collaboration between the Institute for German Studies at the University of Birmingham and Peter Lang.
Über Leben und Sterben im Krieg
Die europäischen Kriege im Zeitalter Napoleons brachten mit ihren Armeen und Schlachten auch das Problem der Kriegsgefangenschaft mit sich. In den Jahren von 1805 bis 1815 gerieten hunderttausende von Soldaten und Nichtkombattanten in die Hand des Feindes.
Der Autor untersucht die Geschichte der Kriegsgefangenen jener epochalen Umbruchzeit. Im Fokus der Studie stehen dabei die theoretischen Konditionen sowie praktischen Bedingungen, denen Soldaten, Zivilisten, Frauen und Kinder unterworfen waren.
Authorial Poetics, Critical Debates, Reception Games
The Persona of Czesław Miłosz considers the poetry of Miłosz in the innovative light of world literature and comparative literary studies. The author employs critical debates about Miłosz in American and English literature to reshape the image of his reception. The book masterfully elaborates Miłosz’s poetics of perspectivism with a new method of analysis based on the category of authorial persona—between reception, poetics, and close-reading—separate from the literary persona. Each chapter encapsulates introductory information about Polish literature and moves beyond the horizon of Western expectations about Central European writers. Miłosz’s most discussed poems reveal new provocative power in the context of T. S. Eliot, Walt Whitman, William Blake, and Friedrich Nietzsche.
To date, no work comprehensively examines Miłosz’s self-proclaimed contradictory nature and the nomadic quality of his works. As a result, scholarship remains scattered in diverse areas of interest, moving Miłosz to the margins of world literature, instead of cherishing the diversity of perspectives he championed, among other places, in his Nobel Lecture. Without properly appreciating the poetics of contradiction proposed by Miłosz and a critical analysis of his process of self-situation, we narrow his impact on literature only to Polish poetry, effectively allowing for a petrification of his innovative methods. The Persona of Czesław Miłosz remedies this gap by revealing that, in contrast to Polish and American literary reception, Miłosz was an eccentric eulogist of the concept of a multi-perspectivist persona. Through close examinations of Miłosz’s poetry, we learn that he develops a method of oscillating between ideas in search of lasting symbols common to all, beginning unfailingly with his current perspective. After all, Miłosz persistently placed himself outside of the consensus and maneuvered the subject matter of his works to such an extent that his works became his philosophy of literature and the way of life.
Explaining Failure and Success
Dr. Michael Haas’ book, United States Diplomacy with North Korea and Vietnam: Explaining Failure and Success, aims to explain a significant, beguiling discrepancy in U.S. foreign relations: How has American diplomacy with Vietnam proved so successful when compared with its efforts to negotiate with North Korea? Haas undertakes a comparative analysis of foreign policy decisions to determine how relationships between the U.S. and each country have diverged drastically, in spite of a legacy of U.S. occupation in both regions. By tracing diplomatic interactions historically, comparatively quantifying diplomatic missteps on the part of the U.S., and cross-testing four paradigms of international relations, Haas presents a case for why the U.S. has succeeded in developing good relations with Vietnam while failing to achieve them with North Korea.
uclear war haunts the world today because the U.S. has refused to negotiate a peace agreement with North Korea for more than six decades, yet the U.S. is on friendly terms today with Vietnam, a former enemy. This book answers why, finding that Washington’s diplomacy with both countries explains the dramatic difference. Among four theories posed, power politics and presidential politics are refuted as explanations. Mass society theory, which focuses on civil society, finds that negotiations regarding American soldiers missing in action paved the way for success with Vietnam but not with North Korea. But diplomacy theory—tracing moves and countermoves during diplomatic interactions—reveals the real source of the problem: The United States provided reciprocated unilateral positive gestures to Vietnam while repeatedly double crossing North Korea. Although Pyongyang repeatedly offered to give up nuclear developments, Washington offered no alternative to Pyongyang but to develop a nuclear deterrent to safeguard the country against a devious and hostile U.S.
he book, in short, serves as a serious corrective to false narratives and options being disseminated about the situation that fail to appreciate North Korea perspectives. Now that North Korea has a nuclear deterrent, diplomacy is the only route toward a de-escalation of tensions so that the United States can live peacefully with North Korea in a manner similar to its relations with nuclear China and nuclear Russia. More broadly, United States Diplomacy with North Korea and Vietnam demonstrates what happens when Washington plays the role of global bully, whereas more resources are needed for developing diplomatic talent in a world that will otherwise become more dangerous.
The subject of this work is the rise and fall of Europe’s aim to rebuild its position in global politics after the Cold War. With success in the unification of Europe and the subsequent deepening and enlargement of its integration, the Union set itself the ambitious task of becoming a global power, even a superpower.
However, starting with the first decade of the XXI century, we have witnessed a rapid erosion of the international position of Europe (the EU). The author carefully analyses the causes of the EU’s failure in pursuing the role of European representative, Europe thereby pretending to the role of one of three world powers. Besides cultural and demographic trends, the author identifies the main factors leading to this failure: the divergent interests of individual European powers, their incapacity to act in a geopolitical context and the rapid erosion of Europe’s civilizational identity.
The rapid decline of Europe’s international position threatens the appearance of a new and bipolar global arrangement together with the further marginalisation of Europe.
Images from the Life in the Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Illustrated by the City of Nitra and Its Surroundings
Miroslav Palárik, Alena Mikulášová, Martin Hetényi and Róbert Arpáš
This book draws attention to the manifestation of the totalitarian regime in Slovakia during World War II in its influences on the Nitra region, known for its dominant historical, economic and cultural center, the city of Nitra. The authors capture the reflection of regulations issued by the central government on the lower level of state administration and show to what extent particular decisions intervened in and influenced the lives of ordinary citizens on a regional level. The changes were obvious in the political, economic, social and cultural life. The book, based on detailed archival research, is a collection of human fates and tragedies caused by the events engendered within the framework of «great politics».
Ein Fürstentum zwischen Souveränität und Abhängigkeit
Ein Zweig des Hauses Nassau erbte 1530 das Fürstentum Orange in Südfrankreich. Während der französischen Religionskriege und des Niederländischen Freiheitskampfes gerieten die Prinzen von Nassau-Oranien als Statthalter der Republik der Vereinigten Niederlande jedoch in Opposition zur französischen Krone, welche die Enklave in ihre Abhängigkeit zu bringen trachtete. Auf neuer Quellengrundlage zeigt diese Studie, inwiefern es den Oraniern gelang, ihre Gebietshoheit durch Einführung einer bikonfessionellen Verfassung, den Bau einer Festung sowie personalpolitische und administrative Maßnahmen bis in die Zeit Ludwigs XIV. zu wahren. Besonderes Augenmerk gilt dabei den teils gegenläufigen Interessen ihrer eigenen Gouverneure und des Parlaments von Orange. Un résumé en français précède le texte.
South African Indian Writing
Jaspal K. Singh and Rajendra Chetty
The purpose of Narrating the New Nation is to engage with South African Indian writings through a critical examination of the oeuvre of key writers within a postcolonial theoretical framework. With the advent of democracy, South Africa has witnessed new writings which either reflected on apartheid with elements of restoration for past atrocities and centered around reflective nostalgia, or looked ahead with optimism and foregrounded new beginnings. The end of the interregnum in 1994 drove people to narrate the relationship between past, present and future, which revealed an exciting diversity and rituals of bourgeois lives or reflected upon disadvantaged and marginalized homes in townships, casbahs and ghettos. These innovative narratives attempt to conquer and spatialize different histories, while at the same time finding creative ways to assemble shattered fragments of memory. A critical question this study asks is whether South African literature continues to address themes of journey, exile, migration and identity within the major concern of place and displacement in apartheid and post-apartheid South African Indian writing, or whether the new writings foreground critical self-awareness as citizens of a democratic and neo-colonial nation-state. What analytical questions and concerns do new writings from the Global South address? This book of critical essays hopes to endorse social and cultural—race, class, gender, sexuality—analysis, problematize them, expand them, and in the end enrich South African literature. In so doing, the authors attempt to encourage a critical, creative and empowering space for a plurality of voices, minds and stories and hope to reveal how literature involves itself in the unfinished business of the collective in South African history and literature.
Das Tagebuch des Helmut Evers, PW
Der Situation in französischen Gefangenenlagern nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg ist bislang wenig Beachtung geschenkt worden. Obwohl sich zeitweise bis zu einer Million deutscher Soldaten in französischen Lagern befanden, haben sich bislang kaum Publikationen dieser Thematik gewidmet. Nach der durch die Bundesregierung in Auftrag gegebenen Dokumentation von Kurt W. Böhme («Die deutschen Kriegsgefangenen in französischer Hand», 1971) hat erstmals Fabien Théofilakis mit «Les prisonniers de guerre allemands» im Jahr 2014 eine alle Aspekte und Bedingungen dieser Gefangenschaft betrachtende wissenschaftliche Studie vorgelegt. Seine Erkenntnisse und Zahlenmaterialien bilden die Grundlage der vorliegenden Kommentierung und historischen Einordnung des Gefangenentagebuches von Helmut Evers. Nach seiner Gefangennahme durch amerikanische Truppen im Frühjahr 1945 in der Eifel führte sein Weg durch unterschiedliche Gefangenenlager bis in ein Bergwerk an der Dordogne, wo er sich bis zu seiner Entlassung im September 1947 aufhielt.