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Wojciech Wachowski

The general aim of this book is to contribute to a better understanding of metonymy, a phenomenon which still, despite the current upsurge in scholarly attention, remains puzzling in some respects. The theoretical framework of this book is provided by the school of thought commonly known as Cognitive Linguistics. The first part of the book analyses and develops various hypotheses concerning the nature of metonymy advanced in the literature to date. It presents numerous arguments in favour of the conceptual rather than purely linguistic basis of metonymy and shows that metonymy is a ubiquitous phenomenon not only in language but above all in thought. The second part contains a thorough analysis of the constraints to the scope of metonymy and discusses the differences between metonymy and other forms of so-called figurative language. The third part is devoted to the role and importance of metonymy in communication and focuses on the creative functions of metonymy, which have received surprisingly little scholarly attention to date, such as euphemism, vague language, and humour. The fourth part of this book is centred on some problematic issues concerning the distinction between metonymy, metaphor, and synecdoche.

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Cognition in context

New insights into language, culture and the mind

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Edited by Enrique Bernárdez, Joanna Jabłońska-Hood and Katarzyna Stadnik

As cognitive scientists continue to probe into the nature of the human mind, it is increasingly clear that research into cognition cannot be dissociated from the context in which our mental activity occurs. The papers collected in this book testify to the growing interest in adopting a broad characterisation of what counts as relevant context. The vices of seeking essences behind complex phenomena should not go unnoticed, the primary, and possibly the most crucial, downside of this approach being a reductionist treatment of the human mind. With this book, the authors want to show that humans are not merely brains, minds, speakers, learners, readers, etc., but, first and foremost, complex beings who communicate within and beyond the contexts of their own cultures.

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Metaphor and Senses

The Synamet Corpus: A Polish Resource for Synesthetic Metaphors

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Magdalena Zawisławska

The book deals with the synesthetic metaphors in Synamet – a semantically and grammatically annotated corpus. The texts included in the corpus are excerpted from blogs devoted to, among others, perfume, wine, beer, music, art, massage and wellness. The thesis presents a Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) and frame-based analysis of synesthetic metaphors in Polish. Using data from the corpus, the book provides ample empirical support for embodiment in metaphor and internal logic of mappings between frames. The study proposes new models of verbal synesthesia in the corpus and calls into question a universality of hierarchy of senses. This book should be of interest to researchers working within cognitive linguistics, in particular metaphor theory, frame semantics, corpus linguistics, and sensory science.

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Olga Łabendowicz

The presented overview is an attempt to identify the ongoing changes in the landscape of Polish audiovisual translation (AVT) audiences watching longer video formats online, and thus to further the research in the area of cognitive performance. The objective of this book is twofold. First, it aims to identify viewing styles, preferences, and expectations of Polish viewers towards watching American humorous productions deeply rooted in source culture with modes of AVT proper. Second, and partly as a by-product, it attempts to offer a combination of methodological tools for further exploration of eye-tracking in AVT studies, triangulating this technology with various research tools (e.g. online questionnaires) to provide a feasible and reliable data analysis. The detailed findings prove that both the AVT and the audiences in Poland indeed change – and as such, the ongoing shifts should be closely examined to initiate a wider and more inclusive discussion about what audiovisual translation of the 21st century should be like.

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Die Abwertung des Anderen mittels Sprache im Amateurfußball

Ein soziolinguistischer Vergleich in Deutschland und Frankreich

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Florian Koch

«Kanake» oder «Kartoffel»? Wörter beschreiben mehr als einzelne Objekte. Wörter teilen ein, grenzen aus und werten ab. Das soziale Phänomen der alltäglichen verbalen Gewalt stellt der Band am Beispiel des Amateurfußballs in Deutschland und Frankreich explorativ dar. Der Autor veranschaulicht, dass verbale Gewalt im Amateurfußball in beiden Ländern weit verbreitet ist. Die Mehrheit der berichteten konkreten verbalen Gewalt lässt dabei auf Gruppenbezogene Menschenfeindliche Einstellungen schließen. Hierbei überwiegen sexistische Beleidigungen. Zudem zeigen die Ergebnisse, dass der Schiedsrichter verbale Gewalt höchst unterschiedlich bewertet. Landesspezifische Konflikte schlagen sich hingegen nicht signifikant bei der Bewertung von verbaler Gewalt durch den Amateurschiedsrichter nieder. Vielmehr kann angenommen werden, dass das Regelwerk der FiFA Richtschnur deutscher und französischer Amateurschiedsrichter ist.

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Edited by Maria de las Nieves Rodríguez Pérez and Barbara Heinsch

La complejidad y diversidad de los actuales contextos multilingües se refleja en este volumen donde, desde diversas disciplinas y metodologías mixtas, los investigadores e investigadoras se centran en aquellos aspectos de la formación de mediadores y docentes de lenguas extranjeras que son susceptibles de potenciar al máximo el desarrollo de competencias comunicativas e interculturales. Estas, en combinación con un adecuado nivel de competencia digital docente, forman el bagaje imprescindible para que la participación de estos agentes bilingües o multilingües sea de impacto en sociedades con un alto grado de globalización.

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Edited by Elvira Cámara Aguilera

El presente libro recoge trabajos punteros de investigación sobre traducción, adaptación y doble destinatario en LIJ. Se estudian géneros tan variados como el álbum ilustrado, la poesía o las historias en formato audiovisual. Sus autores proceden de países como Alemania, Brasil, Costa Rica, España, Francia, Finlandia, Israel, Italia, Portugal o Reino Unido. Autoras como Riitta Oittinen o Zohar Shavit ofrecen una visión nueva sobre obras clásicas. Asimismo, se pueden encontrar proyectos innovadores de aplicación en el aula. Supone abrir una puerta que nos acercará a la literatura para niños y jóvenes de cada uno de esos lugares. Es, sin duda, una muestra representativa de dónde se encuentra y hacia dónde se dirige la investigación de LIJ en el contexto internacional en la actualidad.

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From Bilingual to Biliterate: Secondary Discourse Abilities in Bilingual Children’s Story Telling

Evidence from Greek Heritage Language Speakers in Germany and the United States

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Eva M. Knopp

This study investigates the oral and written story productions of 56 10–12-year-old Greek-German and Greek-English bilingual children in order find out to which extent their narrative abilities develop conjointly across their two languages and which factors affect this. Quantitative and qualitative measures of narrative discourse ability are related to a composite score of bilingual language dominance (Bilingual Index Score). Results indicate that the degree to which bilinguals can share abilities across their two languages is highly dependent on the type of ability and the degree of dominance and – to a lesser degree – on crosslinguistic differences and modality of production. As such, this study reveals nontrivial implications for the educational support of bi- and multilingual children.

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Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) of Subtitles

Criteria for the Evaluation of Persian Subtitles of English Movies Focusing on Semiotic Model of TQA for Poetry Translation and Appraisal Theory

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Yasamin Khosravani

Translation quality assessment (TQA) is a growing topic in the field of Translation Studies. The present book focuses mainly on the translation quality assessment in Persian subtitles of English movies as an almost ignored topic in Translation Studies. The aim is to propose criteria for the evaluation of subtitles. To reach this goal, the author divides the case studies of the present research into two subcategories, i.e., musical movies and non-musical ones. The base for the quality assessment of musical movies is the Semiotic Model of TQA for poetry applied to three movie subtitles, «Anastasia, «Sweeney Todd» and «Les Misérables». This leads to a tentative model for the evaluation of Persian subtitles of English musical movies. The second part of the book focuses mainly on the omission of the interpersonal elements in Persian subtitles of English movies using appraisal theory as the theoretical framework. The theory is applied to the subtitles of two movies, «Prisoners» and «Houdini» leading to criteria for the evaluation of Persian subtitles of English movies.