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Normenlehre des Zusammenlebens

Religiöse Normenfindung für Muslime des Westens. Theoretische Grundlagen und praktische Anwendung

Mahmud El-Wereny

Muslime des Westens benötigen heute keinen «fiqh al-aqallīyāt» mehr, der sie als «Minderheit» sieht. Vielmehr brauchen sie einen fiqh des Zusammenlebens; ein Normensystem, das mit einem toleranten und offenen Blick auf den religiös Anderen eingeht, den Zusammenhalt der Gesellschaft fördert und dem Wohl aller Menschen dient. Die Studie geht der Frage nach, wie die Normenfindung («iğtihād») für Muslime des Westens erfolgt, und diskutiert, wie dies im Sinne eines friedlichen und solidarischen Zusammenlebens und Zusammenwachsens zwischen Muslimen und Nichtmuslimen geschehen sollte. Zum einen werden die rechtstheoretischen Grundlagen des «iğtihād» herausgearbeitet, zum anderen wird anhand von Fallstudien/Fatwas eruiert, ob und wie diese Instrumente der Normenfindung in der Praxis, d.h. bei der Erteilung von Fatwas, Anwendung finden.

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Souheil Thabti

Ziel der Studie, die einen deskriptiv-analytischen und normativen Ansatz verfolgt, ist der Frage nachzugehen, was die Intentionen der Scharia sind und welche Bedeutung sie für das Bankwesen im Rahmen des Kreditwesengesetzes (KWG) haben. Darüber hinaus geht es um die Frage, ob das sogenannte Islamic Banking in der Form der Bank, wie sie das KWG definiert, im Sinne der Intentionen der Scharia möglich ist.

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Le monstre

L’anomalie et le difforme dans la nature et dans l’art

Maddalena Mazzocut-Mis

Au croisement de l’épistémologie et de l’esthétique, cette enquête révèle la pluralité du monstre. Parler du monstre, en effet, cela signifie toujours parler d’autre chose : de la nature et de ses lois, de l’art, de la société.

À partir du moment où l’anomalie naturelle n’est plus reléguée aux recoins les plus cachés des expositions zoologiques, ou considérée comme une simple bizarrerie, un nouveau monde s’ouvre aux philosophes de la nature. La charge transgressive du monstre, bridée dans la discipline tératologique naissante, libère de nouvelles potentialités et influence même le champ de l’art.

Pour Hugo, Balzac, Étienne et Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, les monstres ne sont plus de pauvres spectres angoissés, ni de fantastiques démons, ils obligent l’homme à s’interroger : sur la réalité, sur la vie, sur l’homme et sur la signification de l’art et de la science. L’inhabituel, l’anormal, deviennent alors des principes vitaux qui structurent la réalité en l’adaptant à des conditions toujours changeantes. Le monstre est loin d’être une défaite de la nature, bien au contraire, il est la manifestation du pouvoir vital des corps vivants, il est la vie même qui se transforme.

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Jan Woleński

This collection of essays examines logic and its philosophy. The author investigates the nature of logic not only by describing its properties but also by showing philosophical applications of logical concepts and structures. He evaluates what logic is and analyzes among other aspects the relations of logic and language, the status of identity, bivalence, proof, truth, constructivism, and metamathematics. With examples concerning the application of logic to philosophy, he also covers semantic loops, the epistemic discourse, the normative discourse, paradoxes, properties of truth, truth-making as well as theology, being and logical determinism. The author concludes with a philosophical reflection on nothingness and its modelling.

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Michael E. Hayes

Many New Testament Greek grammarians assert that the Greek attributive participle and the Greek relative clause are "equivalent." Michael E. Hayes disproves those assertions in An Analysis of the Attributive Participle and the Relative Clause in the Greek New Testament, thoroughly presenting the linguistic categories of restrictivity and nonrestrictivity and analyzing the restrictive/nonrestrictive nature of every attributive participle and relative clause. By employing the Accessibility Hierarchy, he focuses the central and critical analysis to the subject relative clause and the attributive participle. His analysis leads to the conclusion that with respect to the restrictive/nonrestrictive distinction these two constructions could in no way be described as "equivalent." The attributive participle is primarily utilized to restrict its antecedent except under certain prescribed circumstances, and when both constructions are grammatically and stylistically feasible, the relative clause is predominantly utilized to relate nonrestrictively to its antecedent. As a result, Hayes issues a call to clarity and correction for grammarians, exegetes, modern editors, and translators of the Greek New Testament.

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Hans Feichtinger

Die Begriffe Bild und Bildung spielen bei Augustin eine wichtige Rolle, ja sie prägen sein Denken. Augustins Auffassung vom Menschen als Bild Gottes hat in späterer Philosophie und Theologie großen Einfluss. Der Autor untersucht drei zusammenhängende Fragen: Was ist ein Bild für Augustin? Wie versteht er die Aussage, dass der Mensch (als bzw. nach dem) Bild Gottes (geschaffen) ist? Wie gestaltet sich gelungene, umfassende Bildung, verstanden als Wiederherstellung und Vervollkommnung des (beschädigten) Bildes Gottes im Menschen? Die Studie betrachtet alle dafür einschlägigen Schriften Augustins, besonders die philosophischen Dialoge, Genesis-Kommentare, De trinitate und De civitate Dei, De doctrina christiana, sowie katechetische und homiletische Werke.

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Living with Rules

Wittgensteinian Reflections on Normativity

Ondřej Beran

The book proposes to see the talk about rules-following as a way of giving an account of particular people’s characters and their lives. This focus on understanding others as variously coping with the claims of particular rules attempts to specify the variety of "attitudes towards a soul" as discussed in the Wittgensteinian tradition. The book derives from the philosophical tradition that considers human beings as rule-following creatures. It suggests that rules followed by other people allow for understanding and sympathising with them. Coping with rules is explored as a complicated lived practice, with respect to: particularised rules holding in relation to a context or to individual people, the variety of our responses to rules we are subject to, or our failure in coping with them.

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Stephen Strehle

Stephen Strehle is a leading scholar of church/state issues. In this volume, he focuses his rigorous historical analysis and philosophical acumen upon a topic of great interest today and source of cultural wars around the globe—the process of secularization. The book starts with a discussion of early capitalism and how it saw the real world functioning well-enough on its own principles of individual struggle and self-interest, without needing religious or moral principles to meddle in its affairs and eventually dispelling the need for any intelligent design or providential orchestration of life through the work of Darwin. The book then discusses the growth of the secular point of view: how historians dismissed the impact of religion in developing modern culture, how scientists conceived of the universe running on self-sufficient or mechanistic principles, and how people no longer looked to the providential hand of God to explain their suffering. The book ends with a discussion of how the Deist concept of human autonomy became a political policy in America through Jefferson’s concept of a wall of separation between church and state and how the US Supreme Court proceeded to dismiss the importance of religion in shaping or justifying the values of the nation and its laws. The book is accessible to most upper-level and graduate students in a wide-variety of disciplines, keeping technical and foreign words to a minimum and leaving scholarly details or debates to its extensive notes.

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Yil Song

This book pays special attention to the hermeneutical location where the fig-tree story appears in Mark 11; it is situated between Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem and his "Temple incident" in Mark 11. The fig-tree story plays a pivotal role in understanding the stories immediatlely preceding and following it. It reverses the mode of Jesus’ entry from being triumphal to untriumphal, and convinces the first Markan readers to feel at ease in confronting Jesus’ outrage in the Temple. The way in which Jesus entered Jerusalem contradicts the common description of the entry as a triumphant one. Additionally, the story finds a proper solution to the problem of Jesus’ actions in the Temple being shockingly in contrast to his overall character as revealed through the Markan Gospel.


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Orthodox Christianity and Human Rights in Europe

A Dialogue Between Theological Paradigms and Socio-Legal Pragmatics

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Edited by ELISABETH-ALEXANDRA DIAMANTOPOULOU and Louis-Léon Christians

This collective book aims at examining in what terms, and to what extent, the "reception" of the Human Rights doctrine takes place in Eastern Orthodox countries, as well as in the Orthodox diaspora. A series of questions are raised regarding the resources and theological structures that are mobilized in the overall Human Rights’ debate and controversy, the theological "interpretation" of Human Rights within the Eastern Orthodox spiritual tradition, and the similarities and/or divergences of this "interpretation", compared to the other Christian confessions. Special attention is given to the various Orthodox actors on the international arena, aside the national Orthodox churches, which participate in the Ecumenical dialogue, as well as the dialogue with the European and international institutions.

Religious freedom, as a fundamental Human right, guaranteed by the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR), constitutes a key-issue that contributes to broadening the reflections on the overall Human Rights-related problematic between East and West, by shading light on the more complex issue pertaining to the conceptualization and implementation of Human Rights in countries belonging to the Eastern Orthodox tradition.

The present volume studies the diversity that characterizes the Orthodox theological traditions and interpretations regarding Human Rights, not only in terms of an "external", or a "strategical" approach of socio-political and ecclesial nature, but also through a reflexive analysis of theological discourses.