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Constitutional Courts in Post-Soviet States

Between the Model of a State of Law and Its Local Application

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Jacek Zaleśny

In the book, authors from eleven post-communist countries analyse the specific legal and political character of the organs of the control of law constitutionality in post-Soviet states. This is done through explaining the legal and political character of those bodies as well as their place in the system of the state power. The authors also examine tasks assigned to those bodies, the manner of their establishment, the course of their work, the legal force of their decisions and the legal status of their members. In the conclusions, the authors refer to the optimisation of the political status of the organs controlling the constitutionality of law as organs of the protection of the constitution.

Research findings, conclusions and recommendations formulated in the book can be applied with a view to changing the mechanisms of the protection of constitutionality in post-Soviet states or presenting lawmakers in other countries with consequences of adopting particular legal solutions.

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Fluchtweg Bulgarien

Die verlängerte Mauer an den Grenzen zur Türkei, Jugoslawien und Griechenland

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Stefan Appelius

Seit dem Bau der Berliner Mauer im Sommer 1961 suchten DDR-Bürger nach alternativen, möglichst gefahrlosen Fluchtwegen in die Bundesrepublik. Dabei entwickelte sich der Fluchtweg über die damalige Volksrepublik Bulgarien mit ihren Grenzen zur Türkei, Griechenland und Jugoslawien bereits nach kurzer Zeit zu einer Hauptfluchtroute. Die überwiegend jungen Leute glaubten, über das rückständige Bulgarien „ganz einfach" in den Westen zu gelangen. Stefan Appelius hat seit fünfzehn Jahren über den Fluchtweg Bulgarien gearbeitet, und das Thema in der Bundesrepublik erstmals einer großen Öffentlichkeit bekanntgemacht. Er wertete mehrere tausend Archivquellen aus und führte seit zwölf Jahren mehrere hundert Interviews mit Flüchtlingen, Angehörigen von Todesopfern, mit Grenzern, DDR-Diplomaten und Staatssicherheitsleuten. Hier legt er die wichtigsten Ergebnisse seiner Arbeit vor.

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Kathleen Brush

The world does not need to be complex and confusing. It can be made simpler so that the business, political, social, and economic implications of global news briefs beaming across televisions and electronic devices can be easily grasped. Key to this is knowing that a five-hundred-year competition for global supremacy between the Chinese, European, Islamic, and Russian empires only ended in 1945. When it did, the world had 57 independent nations. After all empires were dissolved in 1991, there were 193, and each nation carried histories of empires in the form of conquest, religions followed, languages practiced, diversified populations, repressive rule, and histories of discrimination. A Brief History of International Relations: The World Made Easy explores this history of global conflict to contextualize and simplify the often perplexing relations between nations and empires.

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Edited by Vera Eccarius-Kelly and Michael M. Gunter

This book evaluates U.S. foreign policy patterns towards Kurdish movements in Turkey and Syria and the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. In the first section of the collection, U.S. foreign policy approaches are examined by comparing multiple U.S. administrations and their responses to Kurdish demands for autonomy. While Kurds have been used to advance particular policy interests, several contributors also identify challenges to Kurdish independence movements linked to ideological divisions and patronage structures. However, Kurds could benefit from political changes even if U.S. policy preferences favor maintaining established borders.

In the second section, several contributors explore the Kurdistan Regional Government’s unfulfilled expectations and the fallout from the 2017 independence referendum. Consecutive U.S. administrations have been reluctant to destabilize the region, supported efforts by Turkey to co-opt the KRG, and impeded Kurdish movements in Syria and Turkey.

Finally, the third section analyzes the ways in which Kurdish movements have responded to long-standing patterns of U.S. foreign policy preferences. Here contributors examine Kurdish lobbying efforts in the United States, discuss Kurdish para-diplomacy activities in a comparative context, and frame the YPG/J’s (People’s Protections Units/Women’s Protections Units) and PYD’s (Democratic Union Party) project in Syria. Broader power structures are critically examined by focusing on particular Kurdish movements and their responses to U.S. foreign policy initiatives.

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The Rise of Tech Giants

A Game Changer in Global Finance and Politics

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Edited by Nicola Bilotta and Simone Romano

Tech giants entering the banking and financial industry is not an issue of the future, it is already happening. This phenomenon has crucial implications that extend well beyond the banking system. There are questions like: Will tech giants be competitors of incumbents or will they rather partner up? How is the financial regulation going to handle this radical change, and will it succeed in creating a level playing field? What are the implications from a political and social point of view? Will tech giants acquire too much bargaining power in dealing with sovereign states, allowing them to shift political decisions and laws in their favour? This edited book provides a number of answers to these questions through a research effort on the economic and political implications of this technological revolution. While it is impossible to stop this revolution, it poses the challenge of steering towards a sustainable and inclusive improvement of our society and economy.

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Internal Migration

Challenges in Governance and Integration

Edited by Shane Joshua Barter and William Ascher

Internal Migration: Challenges in Governance and Integration focuses on the challenges associated with internal migration across the developing world. While international migration captures significant attention, less attention has been paid to those migrating within recognized national borders. The sources of internal migration are not fundamentally different from international migration, as migrants may be pushed by violence, disasters, state policies, or various opportunities. Although they do not cross international borders, they may still cross significant internal borders, with cultural differences and perceived state favoritism generating a potential for "sons of the soil" conflicts. As citizens, internal migrants are in theory to be provided legal protection by host states, however this is not always the case, and sometimes their own states represent the cause of their displacement. The chapters in this book explain how international organizations, host states, and host communities may navigate the many challenges associated with internal migration.

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Edited by Sylwester Gardocki, Rafał Ożarowski and Rafał Ulatowski

The aim of the book is to present the issues of central importance to the Islamic World. This diverse area faces a lot of difficulties and challenges regarding ethnic and religious conflicts as well as political and economic instability. The authors of the book address the topic from the perspectives of international security, foreign policy, economy, energy policy and regional studies and aim to depict the most suitable examples of crucial dilemmas of the Islamic World in the 21st century. The authors represent the variety of academic institutions and scientific disciplines including political science, international relations, economics and sociology. They apply a wide-selection of qualitative and quantitative methods to perform their research. As a result of this work, this book contributes to the research on the Middle East, South Asia and North Africa.

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Dubček

The Symbol of Spring

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Edited by Miroslav Londák and Slavomír Michálek

The book presents a detailed biography of Alexander Dubček, the icon of the “Czecho-Slovak Spring” in 1968. It aims to explain his decisions and intellectual development in the context of the turbulent development of the 20th century Central Europe. Dubčk’s importance went beyond Czechoslovak borders. His vision of the “socialism with the human face” secured him worldwide fame. At the end of the 1960s, he became a global symbol of the changes desired on both sides of the Iron Curtain. The short time of his leadership brought him and his country at the forefront of the global politics. The invasion of the Warsaw Pact into Czechoslovakia ended his political career and brought him 20 years of isolation. However, Dubčk’s popularity and infl uence in the European Left remained unchanged.

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Miroslav Londák, Slavomír Michálek and Peter Weiss

Das Buch bringt dem Leser den komplexen und schwierigen Prozess der Ausformung der modernen slowakischen Nation näher, zuerst innerhalb des Ungarischen Königreichs und seit 1918 in der Tschechoslowakei. Der Prozess mündete schließlich in die staatliche Unabhängigkeit der Slowakei am 1.1.1993. Die Autoren legen die Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschiede im Empfinden der gemeinsamen Geschichte der Tschechen und Slowaken dar, einschließlich der 44 Jahre nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, als die Tschechoslowakische Republik infolge des Münchner Abkommens und der späten Eröffnung der zweiten Front in die Sphäre des Einflusses der von Stalin beherrschten Sowjetunion geriet.

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Edited by Ömer Ugur and Kadir Caner Dogan

The volume provides a collection of articles on current debates in the fields of politics and public administration. The authors deal with frequently mentioned concepts of our era in political and public administration sciences.