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Disentangling Dyslexia

Phonological and Processing Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia

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Maria Vender

Beyond the well-known reading and spelling difficulties, dyslexic individuals exhibit marked phonological disorders, poor lexical retrieval and problems in the comprehension and production of grammatical structures that are particularly expensive in terms of processing costs. To account for these difficulties, the author presents an original hypothesis, proposing that dyslexia is related to a working memory inefficiency, affecting in particular the subject’s phonological skills and executive functions. The results of four experimental protocols, assessing dyslexic children’s working memory and their ability to interpret scalar implicatures, negative sentences and pronominal expressions, are presented and discussed in this volume. Consistent with the hypothesis outlined in this book, the results of the four studies show that dyslexics underperformed in comparison to age-matched controls and even to younger children in tasks requiring good phonological and processing abilities.

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Beraten in Interaktion

Eine gesprächslinguistische Typologie des Beratens

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Ina Pick

Der Band vereint linguistische Analysen und Ergebnisse zum Beraten in verschiedensten Handlungsfeldern wie Medizin, Psychiatrie, Pflege, Recht, Schule und Hochschule, Weiterbildung, Coaching, Philosophische Praxis, Psychotherapie, Supervision, Soziale Arbeit, Gründung und Wirtschaft. Jedes Einzelkapitel bietet eine detaillierte Beschreibung eines Beratungsformates und seiner spezifischen sprachlich-kommunikativen Merkmale. Davon ausgehend wird eine gesprächslinguistische Typologie entwickelt, die den Facettenreichtum des Beratens anhand einer Merkmalsmatrix abbildet. Diese erlaubt, Typen von Beraten zu bestimmen, miteinander zu vergleichen und zu differenzieren. Damit liefert der Band auch wichtige theoretische und methodologische Impulse für gesprächslinguistische Typologisierungsansätze.

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Xiaodong Zhang

Textbooks have long been considered a pivotal learning and teaching resource in classrooms. However, there is a paucity of research on how teachers use textbooks in relation to their beliefs, with analytic methods in such studies mainly restrained to content-based thematic analysis. To this end, from the perspectives of Halliday’s (1994) systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and Vygostky’s (1978) socio-cultural theory (SCT), this book explores how a Chinese college English teacher acts upon his beliefs and uses textbooks to mediate his students’ English learning in his classroom.

Drawing on constructs of the SFL-based appraisal and speech function as well as interview excerpts, the study reveals that in the textbook-based classroom the Chinese college English teacher acts upon his beliefs that are constructed by diverse contextual factors. Implications of this study include using SFL and SCT to explore educators’ beliefs and practices and also providing effective teacher education for Chinese college English instructors to reshape their beliefs so that they are better prepared to use textbooks in classrooms.

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English Quasi-Numeral Classifiers

A Corpus-Based Cognitive-Typological Study

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Xu Zhang

This book is an interdisciplinary study of English binominal quantitative constructions based on English-Chinese comparison. Taking three perspectives, i.e. a functional-typological perspective, a cognitive approach, and a corpus-based method, it aims to unveil the hidden categorisation process behind the usage of English binominal quantitative constructions and to reveal the language universal in cognising the concepts of ‘Quantity’ and ‘Quality’. It argues against treating Chinese and English as members of two opposing typological camps concerning quantification modes (‘classifier languages’ versus ‘non-classifier languages’) and advocates to view the two languages as lying within a more extended and inclusive system, viz. a system of quantification and categorisation modes, or a Quantity-Quality continuum.

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Caldo Verde Is Not Stone Soup

Persons, Names, Words, and Proverbs in Portuguese America

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George Monteiro

Caldo Verde Is Not Stone Soup identifies elements of an emerging Portuguese American culture in the United States. The book discusses subjects and themes that reflect the richness and diversity of this culture. Included are analyses of the Portuguese fondness for nicknames over surnames, pejorative terms ("portugee," "Gee"), beau ideal heroes (John Philip Sousa, John Dos Passos, and Peter Francisco), now forgotten early emigrants, foreign visitors to the Azores (Samuel Longfellow and Thomas Wentworth Higginson), proverbs from the oral and literary traditions, the Portuguese sailor on American ships, and the saga of English As She Is Spoke, a serious-minded textbook that became a comic phenomenon.

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Alan Reed Libert

The classification of words in terms of parts of speech is frequently problematic. This book examines the classification of conjunctions and similar words of other classes. It reviews work done from the 19th century to the present on a wide range of languages, including English, German, French, Latin, Ancient Greek, Welsh, Persian, Chinese, Japanese, Ute, and Abun. Most chapters treat conjunctions as opposed to one of the other traditionally recognized parts of speech: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, adpositions, and interjections. The book’s major focus is on the terminology used to describe words on or near the borders between conjunctions and other parts of speech, such as «deverbal conjunctions», «conjunctional adverbs», «prepositional conjunctions», and «so-called conjunctions».

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Michèle Cooke

Dieser Band ist ein Plädoyer für die Anerkennung der biologischen Realität, die der Translation als menschlicher Handlung zu Grunde liegt. Die Autorinnen stellen konventionelle Axiome des translationswissenchaftlichen Kanons in Frage und gleichzeitig eine neue Definition von Translation vor. Aus der Synthese vermeintlicher Dichotomien wie Biologie oder Kultur, emotional oder rational, Denken oder Fühlen entstehen neue Begrifflichkeiten, welche die Translation in ein neues Licht rücken. Der biokulturelle Ansatz der Autorinnen verankert Sprache, Kommunikation und Kognition fest in der Spontaneität des Lebens und erklärt diese als dynamische bio-logische Prozesse.

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Laura Baranzini

Cet ouvrage recueille douze contributions portant sur la forme verbale du futur ou sur l’expression de la futurité dans les principales langues romanes (italien, français, espagnol, catalan, portugais, occitan et roumain). Par différentes approches, des spécialistes font le point sur un temps verbal particulièrement riche au niveau des formes et des emplois, en étudiant son évolution diachronique, l’articulation de ses emplois actuels, ou sa variation cross-linguistique. L’analyse de données aussi complexes suscite une réflexion sur les liens entre catégories conceptuelles plus générales, en particulier la futurité, la modalité (déontique et épistémique), l’évidentialité, ou encore l’intentionnalité.
Le panorama offert par l’ensemble des contributions dessine une aire romane où les analogies et les différences dans le comportement du futur permettent des regroupements de langues d’une part, et des regroupements notionnels transversaux de l’autre.

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La réalité virtuelle pour l’apprentissage des langues

Une étude auprès d’adolescents apprenant le français ou l’allemand

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Mickaël Roy

Ce livre aborde la réalité virtuelle pour l’apprentissage médiatisé du français ou de l’allemand langue étrangère. L’étude analyse comment l’immersion et l’interaction en réalité virtuelle peuvent faire émerger un sentiment de présence dans l’environnement virtuel et ainsi contribuer à contextualiser la situation d’apprentissage.

Une centaine de lycéens français et allemands ont expérimenté trois environnements virtuels, développés par le projet européen « Environnement Virtuel pour l'Enseignement Immersif des Langues étrangères dans la Région Trinationale Métropolitaine du Rhin Supérieur » (EVEIL-3D). À l’issue d'un jeu sérieux immersif en langue cible, les élèves ont témoigné de leur expérience. L’analyse de ce corpus souligne la subjectivité de l’expérience en réalité virtuelle. En étudiant la production en langue cible, les stratégies d’usage de la langue, l’interactivité, l’engagement corporel et l’accompagnement de l’apprenant pendant l’immersion, la recherche montre les apports et les limites de la réalité virtuelle comme dispositif d’apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies numériques.

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Michał Borodo

Translating for younger audiences is in need of critical investigation, as children’s and teenagers’ literature and media products are being increasingly globalized and glocalized, with translation playing an important role in the process. Media phenomena such as Harry Potter and animated Disney films travel across continents through hundreds of local cultures. These productions exert a homogenizing effect whilst at the same time undergoing transformation to adapt to new audiences.

This book distinguishes between textual glocalization, anglophone foreignization and large-scale adaptation, illustrating them with examples of translations of animated films by Pixar/Disney and DreamWorks, locally produced versions of the Horrible Histories series, Harry Potter translations and transmedial adaptations as well as film tie-ins. The book argues that global exchanges largely depend on the creative efforts of local agents – professional translators, adapters, retellers, publishers, writers, editors – and sheds light on the initiatives of non-professional translators, including scanlators, fansubbers, hip-hop fans and harrypotterians. By examining globally distributed titles translated at the turn of the twenty-first century, the volume aims at filling a gap at the intersection of translation studies, globalization research and the study of children’s literature and culture.