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Scripting Adolescent Romance

Adolescents Talk about Romantic Relationships and Media’s Sexual Scripts

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Stacey J.T. Hust and Kathleen Boyce Rodgers

Adolescents and emerging adults today spend an estimated seven hours daily attending to media. The media teens attend to commonly present relationships between men and women as a "game" or "competition" in which women seduce through their physical appearance and the masculinity of men is defined through sexual conquest. A growing body of research suggests that viewing this sexualized media may contribute to adolescents’ and emerging adults’ understanding of and behaviors around romantic and sexual relationships. Using social cognitive theory of gender development, scripting theory, and heterosexual script theory as a framework, Scripting Adolescent Romance presents methods and analyses of data from in-depth interviews with 16 high school and young college students, and focus groups with over 100 individuals in this age group. Findings provide a rarely seen view inside youths’ private spaces—their bedrooms and their social media spaces. In often highly-personal conversations, youth provide in-depth information about how they understand and navigate virginity, romantic relationships, sexual situations, and interpersonal violence. Their discussions of "Netflix and chill," Facebook stalking, and the scorecard script illuminate aspects of romance and sex that may be uniquely characteristic of today’s young people. This book is a must-read for parents of adolescents, and promises to be an enjoyable, insightful text for classes about media effects, adolescent development, gender roles, and sexual health.

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Media Scholarship in a Transitional Age

Research in Honor of Pamela J. Shoemaker

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Carol M. Liebler and Tim P. Vos

Media Scholarship in a Transitional Age honors the significant and lasting contribution that Pamela J. Shoemaker has made to mass communications research. Her body of work, spanning four decades, has included groundbreaking conceptual and methodological advances, particularly in the areas of gatekeeping, survey research and content analysis. The chapters in this collection build upon her legacy in both theory and method, and particularly in the area of news research. At the heart of the book are chapters that apply concepts found in Shoemaker’s earliest work, such as deviance and newsworthiness, and extend theories such as gatekeeping and agenda-setting into the digital era. Empirical analyses on topics such as international and political news provide insights into journalism in these transitional times. Additional chapters explore digital media and the "mediated method." The closing section, Reflections on the Transitional Age, includes two chapters that pay homage to Shoemaker’s contributions through discussion of the importance of theory and research from a personal perspective. The final chapter challenges academics to consider the implications of the digital era for scholarly creativity.

A collection with wide appeal to all media scholars, Media Scholarship in a Transitional Age is particularly well-suited to graduate student seminars on mass communications theory, media sociology and news scholarship.

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Gatewatching and News Curation

Journalism, Social Media, and the Public Sphere

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Axel Bruns

Gatewatching and News Curation: Journalism, Social Media, and the Public Sphere documents an emerging news media environment that is characterised by an increasingly networked and social structure. In this environment, professional journalists and non-professional news users alike are increasingly cast in the role of gatewatcher and news curator, and sometimes accept these roles with considerable enthusiasm. A growing part of their everyday activities takes place within the spaces operated by the major social media providers, where platform features outside of their control affect how they can post, find, access, share, curate, and otherwise engage with news, rumours, analysis, comments, opinion, and related forms of information.

If in the current social media environment the majority of users are engaged in sharing news; if the networked structure of these platforms means that users observe and learn from each other’s sharing practices; if these practices result in the potential for widespread serendipitous news discovery; and if such news discovery is now overtaking search engines as the major driver of traffic to news sites—then gatewatching and news curation are no longer practiced only by citizen journalists, and it becomes important to fully understand the typical motivations, practices, and consequences of habitual news sharing through social media platforms.

Professional journalism and news media have yet to fully come to terms with these changes. The first wave of citizen media was normalised into professional journalistic practices—but this book argues that what we are observing in the present context instead is the normalisation of professional journalism into social media.

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Media and Transnational Climate Justice

Indigenous Activism and Climate Politics

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Anna Roosvall and Matthew Tegelberg

Media and Transnational Climate Justice captures the intriguing nexus of globalization, crisis, justice, activism and news communication, at a time when radical measures are increasingly demanded to address one of the most pressing global issues: climate change. Anna Roosvall and Matthew Tegelberg take a unique approach to climate justice by focusing on transnational rather than international aspects, thereby contributing to the development of theories of justice for a global age, as well as in relation to media studies. The book specifically explores the roles, situations and activism of indigenous peoples who do not have full representation at UN climate summits despite being among those most exposed to injustices pertaining to climate change, as well as to injustices relating to politics and media coverage. This book thus scrutinizes political and ideological dimensions of the global phenomenon of climate change through interviews and observations with indigenous activists at UN climate summits, in combination with extensive empirical research conducted on legacy and social media coverage of climate change and indigenous peoples. The authors conclude by discussing transnational solidarity and suggest a solidarian mode of communication as a response to both the global crisis of climate change and the broader issues of injustice faced by indigenous peoples regarding redistribution, recognition and political representation.

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Television 2.0

Viewer and Fan Engagement with Digital TV

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Rhiannon Bury

Television 2.0 sets out to document and interrogate shifting patterns of engagement with digital television. Television content has not only been decoupled from the broadcast schedule through the use of digital video recorders (DVRs) but from broadcasting itself through streaming platforms such as Netflix, Vimeo and YouTube as well as downloading platforms such as iTunes and The Pirate Bay. Moreover, television content has been decoupled from the television screen itself as a result of digital convergence and divergence, leading to the proliferation of computer and mobile screens. Television 2.0 is the first book to provide an in-depth empirical investigation into these technological affordances and the implications for viewing and fan participation. It provides a historical overview of television’s central role as a broadcast medium in the household as well as its linkages to participatory culture. Drawing on survey and interview data, Television 2.0 offers critical insights into the ways in which the meanings and uses of contemporary television are shaped not just by digitalization but by domestic relations as well as one’s affective relationship to particular television texts. Finally it rethinks what it means to be a participatory fan, and examines the ways in which established practices such as information seeking and community making are altered and new practices are created through the use of social media. Television 2.0 will be of interest to anyone teaching or studying media and communications.

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The Culture of Mean

Representing Bullies and Victims in Popular Culture

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Emily D. Ryalls

The Culture of Mean is the first book-length feminist critical exploration of representations of youth bullying in media. Bringing into conversation scholarship on feminism, media, new communication technologies, surveillance, gender, race, sexuality, and class, Emily D. Ryalls critically examines the explosion of discourse about youth bullying that has occurred in the United States during the last two decades. Countering the monolithic and extreme cultural reaction to narratives about bullying, Ryalls argues that, while it seems common sense to view bullying as always wrong and dangerous, not all aggression is bullying and it is problematic to assume so, because it becomes very difficult to differentiate between healthy conflict and unhealthy (potentially violent) torment. Moreover, since the label "bullying" often does not differentiate between teasing, conflict, sexual harassment, and violence, increasingly the most common way to deal with young people accused of bullying is to criminalize their actions. Through an analysis of books, film, television, and journalistic accounts of bullying, The Culture of Mean shows how constructions of bullying in popular culture create an overly simplistic binary of good and bad people. This process individualizes the problem of bullying and disallows a more complex understanding of the structural issues at work by suggesting that putting an end to bullying simply requires incarcerating those evil teens who are prone to bullying behaviors. This critical perspective of bullying will be of interest to scholars and students interested in the fields of girls’ studies, cultural studies, communication, education, sociology, and media studies, as well as parents of school-aged children.

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The Rhetoric of PNoy

Image, Myth, and Rhetorical Citizenship in Philippine Presidential Speeches

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Gene Segarra Navera

Political speeches don’t just mirror what transpires in the world; they have the potential to change people’s minds, move them into action, reinforce existing assumptions, and reshape cultures. They define public participation and are the ‘nexus points’ of disparate discourses, both nationally and globally. Because of their power to sustain the status quo or effect change, speeches warrant public attention and careful study. To examine them is to understand how they are crafted, what elements they possess, and how these elements come together to affect their audience.

This volume analyzes selected speeches delivered by Benigno ‘Noynoy’ Simeon C. Aquino III, President of the Republic of the Philippines from 2010 to 2016. They are speeches that have been used to shape public perception, gain support, and build identification between Aquino’s presidency and his audience.

By mobilizing the concepts of presidential image, myth, metaphors, and rhetorical citizenship, readers are guided through a process of examining the rhetorical trajectory of the Philippine presidency, how a president’s discourse has attempted to shape Philippine socio-political reality, and how the evolving milieu the president has found himself in shapes his discourse. The essays in this volume will hopefully generate a discussion not only on the place of President Benigno Aquino’s rhetoric in Philippine presidential history, but also of how rhetorical practices in an evolving democratic society in Asia can extend and expand theorizations of presidential rhetoric and political communication at large.

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Leara D. Rhodes

This book equips students and practicing journalists with information on why and how to implement a course of action for Peace Journalism. Secondary literature and primary examples are used within all chapters to offer a personal examination of the importance of applying concepts of Peace Journalism in the field as journalists cover conflict. Peace Through Media also identifies how journalism and political science are merging in areas related to conflict resolution. By understanding how both the journalists and the political scientists think about Peace Journalism, collaboration may follow and the benefits of finding peaceful resolutions to conflicts may be a possibility.

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Avatar, Assembled

The Social and Technical Anatomy of Digital Bodies

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Edited by Jaime Banks

Avatar, Assembled is a curated volume that unpacks videogame and virtual world avatars—not as a monolithic phenomenon (as they are usually framed) but as sociotechnical assemblages, pieced together from social (human-like) features like voice and gesture to technical (machine-like) features like graphics and glitches. Each chapter accounts for the empirical, theoretical, technical, and popular understandings of these avatar "components"—60 in total—altogether offering a nuanced explication of avatars-as-assemblages as they matter in contemporary society and in individual experience. The volume is a "crossover" piece in that, while it delves into complex ideas, it is written in a way that will be accessible and interesting to students, researchers, designers, and practitioners alike.
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The American Journalist in the Digital Age

A Half-Century Perspective

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Lars Willnat, David H. Weaver and G. Cleveland Wilhoit

More than a decade has passed since the last comprehensive survey of U.S. journalists was carried out in 2002 by scholars at Indiana University—and the news and the journalists who produce it have undergone dramatic changes and challenges. The American Journalist in the Digital Age is based on interviews with a national probability sample of nearly 1,100 U.S. journalists in the fall of 2013 to document the tremendous changes that have occurred in U.S. journalism in the past decade, many of them due to the rise of new communication technologies and social media. This survey of journalists updates the findings from previous studies and asks new questions about the impact of new technologies and social media in the newsroom, and it includes more nontraditional online journalists than the previous studies.