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The European Union’s Energy Security and Turkey’s Role in the Southern Gas Corridor

Interdependence on the Natural Gas Pipeline between Turkey and EU

Faik Tanrıkulu

This study analyses the issue of energy security and natural gas in the Southern Gas Corridor, and its effects on the relationship between the European Union (EU) and Turkey. The increasing consumption of natural gas in the world as an energy source has rendered it a greater strategic importance in the world. Additionally, the conflict between Ukraine, Belarus and Russia over natural gas has threatened both the short and long-term security of the EU’s gas supply. Consequently this conflict has created the necessity to find alternative routes in order to meet Europe’s increasing gas demand. In this context, Turkey’s and the EU’s dependency on Russian natural gas has increased in the last decades, causing both Turkey and the EU to search for outside energy sources. Turkey plays a key role as part of the strategic Southern Gas Corridor initiative, which is a proposed gas pipeline in corporation with the Trans Anatolia Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP ) project, proposed to run from the Caspian region through Turkey to Europe. This study argues that the energy dependency among the countries not only affects the economic decisions, but also the political decisions.

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Edited by Klaus Schroeder and Jochen Staadt

Zwischen 1949 und 1989 prägten Gewalthandlungen und Menschenrechtsverstöße die Lage an der innerdeutschen Grenze. Die SED-Diktatur konnte ihre Existenz gegen die andauernde Massenflucht aus der DDR nur durch die Errichtung eines mörderischen Grenzregimes behaupten. Dieser Band befasst sich mit den Begleitumständen des DDR-Grenzregimes. Er enthält Beiträge zu den historischen, regional- und alltagsgeschichtlichen Begleitumständen des DDR-Grenzregimes, zu seiner Vorgeschichte von 1945 bis 1949 und zu seiner juristischen Aufarbeitung nach der Wiedervereinigung.

Autorinnen und Autoren: Stefan Appelius, Kerstin Eschwege, Joachim Heise, Ralph Kaschka, Gerhard Schätzlein, Angela Schmole, Enrico Seewald, Klaus Schroeder, Jochen Staadt

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Détente and Beyond

Anglo-Romanian Relations in the Aviation Industry (1966-1993)

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Mauro Elli

By the mid-1960s, the whole European aviation industry had begun looking at two main solutions in order to survive competition from the USA: European cooperation, and exports to markets still closed to the Americans. Against this background, Anglo-Romanian dealings in the aviation industry over a period of almost thirty years are a case of converging politico-military interests with major interpretative potential. This holds true for the history of East-West relations and infra-Western commercial competition, but also for the transformation of domestic decision-making patterns and the change in economic priorities. While Britain became Romania’s first commercial partner in order to offer a new outlet to the aviation industry, Bucharest was looking at the U.K. to pursue a strategy of industrial modernisation and political visibility. The story of their intersection sheds light on the lower-level reality of Détente in Europe. The degree of collaboration across the Iron Curtain was not just the product of a generally improved diplomatic atmosphere, but – at least in the present case – the result of a peculiar mixture of political ambition, economic viability, and technological expertise. Indeed, the change of economic paradigm in the UK (from Neo-Keynesianism to monetarist Neo-Liberalism), along with President Ceauşescu’s fixation with foreign debt, played a crucial role in the vicissitudes of Anglo-Romanian relations in the aviation industry in the period between the demise of Détente and the end of the Cold War. This points to a reasonably articulated model, which is hinged on the category of ‘transfer’, rather than on the category of ‘cooperation’.

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Aménagement rural et qualification territoriale

Les indications géographiques en France et en Europe

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Marc Dedeire

L’objectif de cet ouvrage est triple : il pose d’abord la question du rôle de la qualité, comme concept et outil, et des ressources territoriales dans le développement local et l’aménagement rural. Il permet ensuite, à travers les questions de l’enjeu de l’alimentation, de la gestion des espaces ruraux et du foncier, d’interroger les instruments de la qualification territoriale à partir de l’exemple des Appellations d’Origines Protégées (AOP) et les Indications Géographiques Protégées (IGP). Ces instruments offrent des opportunités de dynamisation des territoires et interrogent les nouveaux enjeux de l’aménagement du territoire rural en France et en Europe. Enfin, il met en débat un cadre théorique sur la qualification territoriale par croisement des diverses politiques rurales de la qualité.

Ce livre aborde successivement les questions des trajectoires de la qualification et des ressources territoriales à partir de terrains français « englobés » pour partie dans des logiques métropolitaines. Plus largement, l’action publique locale montre que la qualité est aujourd’hui attendue et réclamée par la société et conditionne souvent la mise en œuvre de solutions spécifiques d’aménagement des espaces. Tout en mobilisant une approche interdisciplinaire, cette étude contribue à élargir le champ de l’aménagement de l’espace en incluant les questions de la connaissance, mais aussi de la cognition spatiale à travers différents statuts de l’espace rural, dans des contextes économiques et géographiques variées.

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Incarner le droit international

Du mythe juridique au déclassement international de la Belgique (1914-1940)

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Vincent Genin

La Guerre de 1914-1918, par son caractère global, ses innovations technologiques, ou encore son degré de violence, marque une étape significative de l’histoire contemporaine. La Belgique, premier pays du front Ouest à être envahi, se situe aux premières loges de cette nouvelle phase historique. La neutralité « perpétuelle, permanente et garantie » de ce territoire est violée, en transgression du droit international public. Ce point d’ancrage semble propice à l’étude d’un milieu ayant peu attiré l’attention des historiens : les juristes belges de droit international. Cette étude est à même de mieux nous informer sur les caractéristiques de ce milieu professionnel en soi, concerné au premier chef par l’acte inaugural de la guerre, sur ses pratiques, ses codes, ses réseaux internationaux, le positionnement des juristes, mais aussi, en négatif, de nous renseigner sur un aspect méconnu de l’image de la Belgique et de sa position dans la hiérarchie internationale, à savoir sa contribution au droit international. L’évolution de ce milieu et de ce qu’il représente, à l’aune de la Guerre de 1914-1918, reconnue pour avoir accéléré la juridicisation des relations internationales, constitue l’essentiel de l’angle d’approche adopté par notre recherche. Ces réflexions nous mènent à la problématique générale de cet ouvrage, que l’on peut énoncer comme suit : dans quelle mesure les juristes belges de droit international public, de 1914 à 1940, ont tissé des réseaux internationaux, ont été des indicateurs de l’évolution de la Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale et, surtout, ont été influencés par l’expérience de la Guerre de 1914-1918, en tant que génératrice d’une mémoire influant sur les modes d’expressions et de représentations de ce groupe social ?

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Edited by Patrick Maxime Michel

Le colloque organisé les 2-3 mai 2014 à l’Université de Genève avait pour but de donner une vue d’ensemble des connaissances sur les rites liés aux portes ou la ritualisation des passages à travers les portes dans l’Antiquité, plus précisément en Egypte, en Mésopotamie, en Anatolie, en Grèce et dans le monde biblique. Conçu sur deux journées, le colloque donnait d’une part la parole aux jeunes chercheurs de l’Université de Genève, d’autres part à des spécialistes internationaux.

Qu’on les traverse, qu’on les construise, qu’on cherche à les protéger, il existe tout un ensemble de pratiques rituelles spécifiques aux portes que les différentes contributions du recueil vont aborder. Il offre donc diverses réflexions tant sur les génies des portes que sur les rites de passage qu’on traite des portes urbaines, des portes de temples ou des portes de tombes.

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Erika and Klaus Mann

Living with America

Beverley Driver Eddy

Erika and Klaus Mann: Living with America provides new insights into the lives of Thomas Mann’s two eldest children, by focusing on their years in America. It begins with Erika and Klaus Mann’s self-promotional tour of the United States in 1927–1928, and follows up with their return in 1936 as voluntary exiles determined to fight the spread of Nazism in Europe. As children of privilege and considerable personal charm, Erika and Klaus Mann quickly became highly visible representatives of the German exile community.

In examining their lives in America, the United States plays a central role. Just as the Manns’ views of America evolved between 1936 and 1952, so did American public opinion and government policy. This study examines Erika and Klaus Mann’s public and private statements, while also examining statements made about them by American journalists, politicians, book critics, and F.B.I. and immigration officers. It follows the Mann siblings’ rise in America as celebrity representatives of an "other," better Germany, and the forces that began to rally against them even before the outbreak of the war. It shows the many concrete actions the Mann siblings took to persuade Americans to view their country as one linked to European interests, and it describes their various war activities, with Erika becoming a U.S. war correspondent and Klaus an American soldier. Finally, it portrays their fears for America as the war drew to a close, America deployed the atom bomb, and the nation quickly transformed itself from Russian ally to Cold War combatant.

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Wickham Steed

Greatest Journalist of his Times

Andre Liebich

Hailed as «the greatest journalist of his time» Henry Wickham Steed (1871-1956) was editor-in-chief of The Times after World War I, having been its foreign editor since 1914, and, previously, its correspondent in Berlin, Vienna and Rome. «Spiritual godfather» of the post-Habsburg new states he was long acknowledged as the world’s greatest authority on Central Europe. In the 1930s, he stood at the forefront of the anti-appeasement camp and, in World War II, was the BBC’s Overseas Services chief broadcaster. Contemporaries remarked upon Steed’s impressive appearance, prodigious command of foreign languages, and extraordinary network of connections in high places. He was also a paradoxical personality of a liberal outlook and conservative disposition, torn too by complex personal relationships. Lionized abroad but denounced at home, Steed remained an outsider even as he reached the pinnacle of success in his chosen profession and exerted a significant influence on his times.

«Steed is a fascinating character, who moved easily and influentially between the worlds of journalism, diplomacy and academia […]. It has been a long wait for a biography, but this one is so thorough and definitive that I am sure it will be a long wait before a rival emerges.»
Prof. Tom Buchanan, University of Oxford

«This work constitutes the first biography of Wickham Steed who, […] was a seminal figure within the media and political worlds of both Britain and Europe during the earlier half of the twentieth century. […] Beyond offering us a personal history of a fascinating and highly influential figure, the author provides us with fresh insights into both British domestic politics and high society and the international diplomacy of a particularly turbulent era.»
Prof. Conan Fischer, University of St. Andrews

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Rise of the Early Roman Republic

Reflections on Becoming Roman

Thomas L. Dynneson

An audaciously daring narrative, this text presents an overview of the early history of Rome, focusing the reader’s attention to those distinctive and often hidden cultural features that contributed to create a unique ancient Roman mindset and civic outlook. Using an historical format, Thomas L. Dynneson addresses these cultural forces which ultimately shaped the Romans into the ancient world’s most powerful military city-state.

Comprised of numerous values and beliefs, the Romans sought to develop their citizens as a cohesive whole. This approach enabled a mastering of both the practical and utilitarian tactics for solving problems, an expression of classical intellectualism. Identifying this sense of idealism paralleled with the Romans embodiment of sacrifice to overcome all obstacles, the author explores several features of becoming Roman. Within this text, each section is designed to pull together the general historical elements which helped to create a unique Roman citizenship. The final section of each chapter contains further analysis, including the author’s narrative regarding the general sources used, and the second containing a review of one exceptional recommended reading. The later chapters of the book provide a special "Recent Scholarship" section, which explores the work of recent scholars’ "revisionists" perspectives related to the traditional ancient sources.

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Bangladesh

Political and Literary Reflections on a Divided Country

Q M Jalal Khan

Bangladesh is now divided as "our" country and "their" country. This division has been solely created by the critically close to authoritarian and exclusionary Awami regime—belligerent and BNPhobic. This book is a detailed account of the divided Bangladesh, where there has been a near-total suppression and extermination (since 2009) of the political opposition, BNP. It is a recount of the horror and terror resorted to by the regime addicted to governing the country through a process of complete politicization and criminalization of all the branches of the state.

Being a descriptive narrative of the regime’s abuses of state tools and agents, the volume launches a crusade against the nearly autocratic and despotic one-party government, boastfully bragging about its denial of moral, political, and economic corruption and its obstruction of the democratic rights of the opposition.