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Towards Scientific Metaphysics, Volume 2

Benedykt Bornstein’s Geometrical Logic and Modern Philosophy

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Krzysztof Śleziński

In the first half of the 20th century, many Polish philosophers focused on defining scientific concepts that could lead to the development of a philosophical synthesis of reality. Benedykt Bornstein elaborated an algebraic logic and developed novum organum philosophiae in the form of geometrical logic, a mathematical system of universal science. It can also be stated that Bornstein was unquestionably the forerunner of philosophers who started research into spatial logic in the second half of the 20th century.

The aim of this study on Bornstein’s Geometrical Logic is to draw readers’ attention not only to the algebraic and geometrical tools used in philosophical research, but also to demonstrate its importance for contemporary philosophical discussions which use mathematical tools in topology and category theory.

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Mensch, Analogie und Trinität

Eine Untersuchung des analogen Denkens in der Trinitätslehre von Augustinus, Richard von St. Viktor und Gisbert Greshake

Fidelis Den

«Der Mensch ist in seiner Ganzheit eine Analogie der Trinität». Diese Hauptthese der Studie ist das Ergebnis der Auseinandersetzung mit der Trinitätslehre von Augustinus, Richard von St. Viktor und Gisbert Greshake. Das Ziel der Untersuchung ist nicht nur eine Rekonstruktion und Darstellung des Menschenverständnisses, des analogen Denkens und der Trinitätslehre dieser Theologen, sondern sie soll auch die These des Autors argumentativ bestätigen, dass der Mensch in seiner Ganzheit eine Analogie für die göttliche Trinität ist.

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Der Streit um die Krefelder Fronleichnamsprozession

Ein lokaler Kulturkampf im 19. Jahrhundert

Volker Speth

In der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts bemühte sich der Krefelder katholische Pfarrer Reinarz gemäß dem Wunsch der katholischen Bevölkerungsmehrheit um die polizeiliche Erlaubnis zur alljährlichen Durchführung einer öffentlichen Fronleichnamsprozession in der Stadt Krefeld, die seit über 200 Jahren verboten war. Mehrere Versuche scheiterten am Widerstand des Bürgermeisters, des Landrats und der preußischen Regierung, welche damit die sozialpolitischen Herrschaftsinteressen der protestantischen städtischen Führungsschicht auch auf religiös-kultischem Gebiet vertraten und verteidigten. Erst die Revolution von 1848/49 und die Religionsartikel der preußischen Verfassung vom 5. Dezember 1848 ermöglichten 1849 die erstmalige Prozessionsabhaltung. Dadurch dass die langjährige Gegenwehr auf eine Säkularisierung des öffentlichen Raums mittels seiner Freihaltung von Gottesdiensten abzielte und in einem Antiklerikalismus, der wiederum in einem latenten Antikatholizismus wurzelte, mitbegründet lag, gewannen die Auseinandersetzungen den Charakter eines lokalen Kulturkampfes in der Reihe der vielen Kulturkämpfe des 19. Jahrhunderts.

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Orthodoxy and Ecumenism

Towards an Active Metanoia

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Razvan Porumb

This book explores the relationship between the Orthodox tradition and the ecumenical practice of engagement with other Christian traditions. This relationship has for a long time been compromised by an underlying tension, as the Orthodox have chosen to participate in ecumenical encounters while – often at the same time – denouncing the ecumenical movement as deficient and illegitimate. The author perceives this relationship to be even more inconsistent since the core of Orthodoxy as professed by the Orthodox is precisely that of re-establishing the unity and catholicity of the Church of Christ. This vision informs Orthodox identity as essentially a Church of exploration, of engagement and dialogue, a Church committed to drive all other traditions, but also itself back to the «right» primordial faith. The book exposes the risk of Orthodox theology turning into an oppositional picture of Orthodoxy as necessarily opposed to a heterodox antipode, rather than being the continuous dynamic reality of the living Church of Christ. The author proposes the rediscovery of a set of paradigms in an ethos of humble, active metanoia that would enable a more plenary ecumenical operation for the Orthodox as well as a renewed awareness of their own spirituality.
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Lukas Ohly

Was gegenwärtig unter dem Stichwort „Digitalisierung" verhandelt wird, pendelt zwischen Heilsphantasien und Katastrophisierung. Die Theologische Ethik tastet sich gegenwärtig noch unsicher an dieses Thema heran. Das Buch legt eine ethische Grundlegung für die Probleme der angewandten Ethik mit künstlich intelligenten und autonomen Maschinen vor. Insbesondere der moralische Status von Robotern und Künstlicher Intelligenz wird bestimmt.

An Robotern treten wesentliche Phänomene intersubjektiver Begegnungen nicht auf. Man kann sich vor ihnen nicht anhaltend schämen und ihre Lernfähigkeit keinem Wesen zurechnen, das lernt. Damit sind theologische Kriterien des Status des Menschen benannt, die sich nicht nachbauen lassen.

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Towards Scientific Metaphysics, Volume 1

In the Circle of the Scientific Metaphysics of Zygmunt Zawirski. Development and Comments on Zawirski’s Concepts and their Philosophical Context

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Krzysztof Śleziński

The book presents results from research conducted by Zygmunt Zawirski on the theory of knowledge, quantum mechanics, logic, ontology and metaphysics.

The works undertaken in the field of logic, methodology and philosophy of science, and in particular the philosophy of nature and natural science testify to a solid preparation for the fundamental task of developing contemporary scientific philosophy. The emerging mathematical natural science did not have those possibilities which emerged in the 20th Century and which Zygmunt Zawirski (1882-1948) used. In the development of scientific metaphysics, he took into account both the achievements of modern logic, mathematics and physics. Zawirski builds scientific metaphysics by referring to empiricism, broadly understood experience. Modern metaphysics should meet high standards of precision and uniqueness, which is why Zawirski attempts to apply the axiomatic method to both the analysis of the theory of physics and the scientific metaphysics.

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Catholic Religious Minorities in the Times of Transformation

Comparative Studies of Religious Culture in Poland and Ukraine

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Edited by Magdalena Zowczak

In the diasporic communities of Roman Catholics in Ukraine (Murafa) and Greek Catholics in Poland (Biały Bór) religion and the local clergy play a dominant role in the process of constructing new identities. Because of the memory of their ancestors’ deportation trauma the Greek Catholics define their Ukrainianness in opposition to their environment. In Roman Catholics’ case, the change of the liturgy’s language is followed by the Polish tradition’s rejection: they feel Ukrainian. The break of the tradition’s transmission path divides the community and directs them towards (pop)cultural homogenization with the Orthodox. The Greek Catholics are also divided because of their new church; universal in the Christian sense, it proves the overcoming of divisions, not accepted by everyone.

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Peace in Zanzibar

Proceedings of the Joint Committee of Religious Leaders in Zanzibar, 2005–2013

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Arngeir Langås

Peace in Zanzibar: Proceedings of the Joint Committee of Religious Leaders in Zanzibar, 2005–2013 brings a multiperspective analytic lens to the Joint Committee of Religious Leaders for Peace (JVD), a unique Christian-Muslim peace initiative in Zanzibar. Drawing on eight years of experience working as a missionary with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania and serving as a member of the JVD itself, in addition to formal fieldwork, Arngeir Langås asks whether Christian-Muslim cooperation can contribute to peace on the East African islands and, if so, how. Situated in the academic field of missiology and taking abductive reasoning as its primary research method, Peace in Zanzibar demonstrates numerous areas of academic interest that can be addressed through studies of interreligious practice, including identity, syncretism and popular religion, the politicization of religion and the religionization of politics, and state-religion models. This book will find a broad and receptive audience among students, interreligious dialogue practitioners, missionaries, theologians, and missiologists.

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Jan Felicjan Terelak

The author of the book provides a comprehensive examination of stress, an integral part of people’s lives. In the first chapter, he reviews the 20th-century theories of stress, from biological mechanisms of stress through medical concepts to contemporary models of psychological stress. The second chapter provides a detailed classification of sources of stress, based on physical, chronobiological, psychological and social factors. In the third chapter, the author focuses on reactions to stress and presents them from physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral perspectives. The fourth chapter focuses on two theoretical constructs: resistance to stress and coping with stress. The author presents task-oriented, emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping with stress and underlines the role of social support in dealing with stress.

The author emphasizes the fact that stress has many faces. It can be seen as "eustress", which has an important motivational function, forcing us to make efforts and achieve life goals, or "distress", which distracts us from achieving our goals and comfort of life.

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For the Life of the World

An Eastern Christian Approach to Nature and Environmental Care

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Robin Gibbons

For the Life of the World: An Eastern Christian Approach to Nature and Environmental Care explores climate change and global ecological issues via the ability of Christianity—one of the world’s most frequently practiced religions—to provide insight. Author Robin Gibbons outlines the tradition of prior Christian involvement in the issue, drawing upon ideas of freely given care and human stewardship of the world. Recently, the issue of climate change and the Christian community’s inability to act against it has been characterized by a disconnect between human life and nature, with the biblical model of human stewardship subsumed by politics, business, and greed. In contrast, this book advocates for embracing an older model of Christian thought, theoretically surmounting the consequences of climate disaster through care and respect for nature.