As demonstrated by the 2016 Presidential Election, memes have become the suasory tactic par excellence for the promotional and recruitment efforts of the Alt-right. Memes are not simply humorous shorthands, or pithy assertions, but play a significant role in the machinations of politics and in how the public comes to understand and respond to their government and compatriots. Using the tools of rhetorical criticism, Woods and Hahner detail how memetic persuasion operates, with a particular focus on the 2016 election of Donald J. Trump. Make America Meme Again: The Rhetoric of the Alt-right reveals the rhetorical principles used to design Alt-right memes, outlining the myriad ways memes lure mainstream audiences to a number of extremist claims. In particular, Make America Meme Again argues that Alt-right memes impact the culture of digital boards and a broader public culture by stultifying discourse and thereby shaping how publics congeal. Woods and Hahner demonstrate that memes are a mechanism that proliferate white nationalism and exclusionary politics by spreading algorithmically through network cultures in ways that are often difficult to discern. Alt-right memes thus present a significant threat to democratic praxis, one that can begin to be combatted through a rigorous rhetorical analysis of their power and influence. Make America Meme Again illuminates the function of networked persuasion for scholars and practitioners of rhetoric, media, and communication; political theorists; digital humanists; and anyone who has ever seen, crafted, or proliferated a meme.
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Un nouvel équilibre ?
Maya Bacache, Marc Bourreau and François Moreau
Près de vingt années se sont écoulées depuis l’apparition de Napster, souvent considérée comme le point de départ de la transformation numérique de l’industrie musicale. Comment les musiciens se sont-ils adaptés à cette transformation ? C’est la question à laquelle cet ouvrage entend répondre en analysant les résultats d’une enquête menée auprès de plus de mille artistes musiciens professionnels associés à l’Adami (société de gestion collective des droits des artistes interprètes). L’objectif était de comprendre comment la transformation numérique a affecté leur métier dans ses diverses facettes (production, distribution/diffusion, promotion, activité scénique, etc.). Comment a-t-elle modifié les relations au sein de la filière et avec le public ? Quel a été l’impact sur les revenus des musiciens ? Après avoir dressé un portrait des « artistes et musiciens interprètes », l'ouvrage analyse les stratégies et positionnements des artistes musiciens face aux différents modes de diffusion (légale ou illégale) en ligne. L'impact du numérique sur les étapes de création, de financement et de production des œuvres est ensuite étudié pour finir par s’intéresser à la perception qu’ont les artistes musiciens des nouveaux modèles d’affaires numériques (notamment le streaming). L’ouvrage offre également une comparaison avec les résultats d’une enquête similaire menée six années auparavant, en 2008, lorsque certains des nouveaux acteurs clés de l’industrie musicale (YouTube, Spotify, etc.) n’existaient que depuis peu, voire pas encore.
Essays on Assessment, Inclusion, Pedagogy and Civic Engagement
Edited by Ronald A. Sudol and Alice S. Horning
As individual institutions of education at all levels respond to the call for greater accountability and assessment, those who teach literacy face the challenging task of choosing what to measure and how to measure it. Both defining literacy clearly and tying that definition to strategies for assessment are two of many challenges faced by educators, theorists, and members of the public who assume responsibility for assessing literacy as well as developing and improving literacy programs. In a pluralistic and democratic society sensitive to multicultural variation, we need to find our way between the competing needs for inclusiveness and for clear and useful standards. Multiple definitions of literacy raise the issue of whether there can be a standard or set of standards and if so, what they are in an environment of multiple literacies. Indeed, the downside of the defeat of older monolithic notions of literacy is the undermining or at least the questioning of well-established methods of literacy assessment. To some extent, the older methods of assessment have been revised in the light of more expansive definitions of literacy. But will this kind of revision be enough? How are the criteria for judgment to be known and applied? Thus, this volume addresses the problems of assessing literacy development in the context of multiple and inclusive definitions. Each section consists of chapters that deal with the issue of definitions per se, with standards in postsecondary settings, with the K-12 situation, and with alternative, non-school environments where literacy is critical to human functioning in a democratic society.
Edited by Bayram Oğuz Aydin, Emine Şahin and Özlem Duğan
The main goal of this book is to draw attention to possible applications of public relations and advertising theories. The authors aim to present a new perspective for public relations and advertising research, claiming that it is worth looking at what theories are used in public relations and advertising space.
This book provides an overview of key studies and contributions to the theories, as well as explores how the theoretical concepts can be applied in public relations.
The practical solutions set out in this book focus on various public and private sectors. The studies analysed and the applications proposed are particularly valuable in terms of how public relations and advertising theories respond in practice. For this reason, this book will be an important work both for academics and practitioners working in the field of public relations and advertising.
Community, Engagement, and Editors
Reshaping the News: Community, Engagement, and Editors is the culmination of a six-year search for an economic resolution to the digital business conundrum facing the newspaper industry. Today’s media tend to generate journalism with a low immediate newsroom impact, allowing journalists to continue reporting without considering the audience’s increasingly dominant role in a story’s longevity. This renders newsrooms as managed rather than led, and turns editors into facilitators—managing project-driven journalism, attempting to match publishers’ expectations of diversified income streams, and providing reporters with increased autonomy. In fact, newsrooms require a new kind of leadership, one that rethinks its relationship with the audience.
Reshaping the News argues for that alternative, deconstructing the reporting and editing relationship and illustrating the ideal version of editorial oversight. Author George Sylvie dissects reporter communities and culture, as well as the connection between journalism and geographic space/management. The book also examines whether journalists have developed the appropriate infrastructure to assure credibility and avoid potential mishaps, misconduct, and misrepresentation. Though the innovative, non-traditional approach to audience engagement outlined within challenges journalistic boundaries, Reshaping the News posits its new model as necessary and of potential lasting value to the field of journalism.
Edited by Philippe Bouquillion and François Moreau
The assessment of the challenges of digital platforms for cultural industries raises many different issues. How platforms choices in content pricing affect the overall value of cultural markets, especially in the case where content just aim at favoring devices’ sales? How are revenues shared between platforms and content right holders? Do creators and artists all benefit from the growth of digital platforms? How usual business models of cultural industries have to adapt to the digital paradigm? Should we observe rather a reinforcement of the star system or the emergence of a long tail? What is the impact on market concentration? Could we expect an increase or a decrease in cultural diversity? What is the role played by recommender systems, playlists and algorithms in influencing consumers’ choices? How to implement efficient public policies given the transnational dimension of digital platforms? The various papers gathered in this book contribute further to these different topics with a focus on empirical issues. The first part gathers the contributions dealing with the analysis of the impact that digital platforms have on the incumbent or legacy players of the original value chain of content industries: content providers, live entertainment producers, consumers, etc. The second part opens the black box of the ecosystem of digital platforms by studying competition among them and among the business models they adopt, as well as the conditions for the emergence of new players.
Towards an East Asian Identity?
Edited by Xin Chen and Nicholas Tarling
This edited volume brings together scholars from eight countries to explore interactions of popular cultural flows, state politics, audiences’ receptions, and public debates in Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Indonesia, Korea, Vietnam and China, and across the region as a whole. These investigations provide fresh conceptual and empirical insights into the study of the dynamic and complex interface of cultural adaptation, political identification and regional identity formation in the popular cultural consumption process in East Asia. The impact of cross-border popular cultural flows on East Asians’ competing national selves and the potential of translating pleasure from popular cultural consumption into regional integration urges are thus issues carrying political significance and consequence for East Asia, and possibly with serious repercussions on the world.
Edited by Ceren Yegen and Nurettin Güz
The digital era we are in is presenting a series of innovations every day. Today, technology is becoming a decisive factor in everyday life as well as in professional life. Every day, new media, which develop at a fast pace, influence many areas from everyday relations to professions and transform media. For example, the traditional media today has to adapt to new communication technologies and new media-based platforms. However, new forms of journalism and their tendencies are the ones that have a negative effect on the traditional media. Therefore, it is important to understand the situation of the traditional media in the new media age. This book will serve as a guide to understanding the new media – which stand as a great power against the traditional media today – as well as the structure of its environments and its potentialities.
Mediated Responses to Globalization
Edited by Divya McMillin, Joost de Bruin and Jo Smith
Place, Power, Media: Mediated Responses to Globalization is a compelling, interdisciplinary exploration of how media practices and communication rituals are connected to larger economic, social, and political processes in a globalizing world. Through a rich variety of media texts, authors examine how daily, mundane, and interpersonal processes help shape ‘our’ place in the world, a placement that is integrally connected to social relations at the global level. Denoting a sense of geography as well as demarcating diverse social positionings, place is understood as the result of historical and contemporary discourses occurring on a range of scales and within different cultural, aesthetic, and political contexts. The authors argue that the construction, restoration, configuration, and representation of place is an important project at multiple levels; what meanings are derived from it, what meanings are infused, who the key players are, what power struggles are inherent—these issues offer rich areas of study for global media scholars interested in the place-making powers of media.
National Publics and Transnational Fields
Edited by Camelia Beciu, Mălina Ciocea, Irina Diana Mădroane and Alexandru I. Cârlan
This volume identifies empirical sites and methodological frames for approaching the construction of migration as a public problem. Starting from the premise that transnationalism becomes structural in setting the public agenda, the authors explore topics and arguments on migration in media and political discourses, as well as the ways migrants and non-migrants recontextualize these discourses in the process of making sense of migration, as a matter of citizenship and policy action.