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Approccio sintagmatico alla preparazione terminologica nell’interpretariato

Uno studio del caso per la direzione linguistica A–B

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Stefania D’Amico

La terminologia specialistica riveste un ruolo centrale nell’attività di interpretazione, sia simultanea che consecutiva, e nella preparazione che la precede. Ciò vale sia nel caso in cui sia prevista una resa dalla lingua nativa (lingua A) alla lingua straniera (lingua B), sia quando si deve interpretare dalla lingua B alla lingua A. La preparazione terminologica risulta però particolarmente importante nella direzione linguistica A–B, poiché si verifica spesso il caso in cui non è un termine in quanto tale a creare difficoltà traduttive, bensì il contesto in cui compare. L’autrice si propone dunque di elaborare un modello di preparazione basato su un approccio sintagmatico e un’analisi contrastiva, che consentono di analizzare i termini inseriti in un determinato contesto d’uso.

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Elżbieta Pawlikowska-Asendrych

Das Buch erörtert das Problem der Konzeptualisierung der deutschen FREIHEIT im Diskurs aus linguistischer Sicht. Hierfür berührt die Autorin zunächst die aktuellen Fragen der Diskurslinguistik, deren Entwicklungspotenzial sie im kognitiven Forschungsbereich sieht. Im analytischen Teil führt sie die diskurssemantischen Untersuchungen durch, deren Ziel ist, die semantischen Repräsentationen des Konzeptes FREIHEIT unter Anwendung der kognitiv-linguistischen Methodologie (Erkenntnisdomäne, mentaler Raum, Frame-Semantik, konzeptuelle Metapher, Metonymie, semantische Valenz) auszuleuchten. Die Autorin lenkt anschließend die Aufmerksamkeit auf den semantischen Wert des Begriffs REISEFREIHEIT, der unter Berücksichtigung der politischen und sozialen Kontexte des Mauerfalls konzeptualisiert wird.

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L’instinct du Sens

Essai sur la ‘naissens’ de la parole

Philippe Barbaud

Cet essai aborde avec audace la question passionnante de l’origine du langage en se situant dans un cadre de linguistique évolutionniste. Il renverse la perspective habituelle en mettant de l’avant l’idée que l’homme est un animal qui a perdu l’instinct de son langage signalétique en lui substituant une addiction au langage symbolique de la parole. C’est grâce à un processus d’exaptation gouverné par l’instinct de communication que l’appareil phonatoire de bipèdes préhistoriques s’est vu peu à peu réaffecté à sa nouvelle tâche de transmettre du sens. La ‘naissens’ de la parole a donc scellé le destin du langage en tant qu’insigne faculté de la cognition humaine.

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Edited by David M. Mark, David Stea and Carmelita Topaha

The Navajo language (Diné bizaad) has a vocabulary of landscape terms that allow speakers to communicate about their environment. This book documents that vocabulary and provides photographic illustration of many of the terms. The meanings of these terms seldom matches English-language terms one-to-one. Terms of include explicit reference to earth materials such as water or rock/stone. Rather than alphabetically, book is organized by material and form categories.

This dictionary should be a valuable resource for language preservation in schools and elsewhere, and for linguists, anthropologists, geographers, and earth scientists interested in indigenous conceptualization of landscape and environment.

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Edited by Kacper Bartczak and Jakub Mácha

This book is devoted to investigating the relationships and correspondences that hold between the poetry of Wallace Stevens and philosophy. Stevens used the aesthetically enhanced language of his poems to create inquiries into the nature of reality that parallel those conducted by philosophers. He also maintained poetry’s independence from philosophy. The first part of the book contains contributions that pursue various aspects of these parallels. Here, the authors explore the relations between Stevens’ poems and specific philosophical concepts or the thought of individual philosophers. The contributions in the second part narrow down the scope to the issues within the philosophy of language. This section concentrates on the role of metaphor and figurativeness in Stevens’ poetry.

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Edited by Łukasz Bogucki, Paulina Pietrzak and Michal Kornacki

The volume, which is a highly recommended reading for translators, translation scholars and particularly translator educators, displays an impressive array of statements on current translator education. It is both comprehensive and versatile, inspiring and critical. Eleven articles comprised in the collection present perspectives from various educational environments and deal with pertinent theoretical, practical and methodological issues, such as translation evaluation methods, self-reflection, linguistic theories in service of the process of translation, translation thinking and creativity, AVT, eye-tracking logs as enhancement of the learning process, target projects and translation discourse, Facebook as communication platform, cross-cultural reconceptualisation and translator competence. The topics are relevant and ideas directly transferable to the translation classroom.

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Current Perspectives in Semiotics

Signs, Signification, and Communication, Volume 1

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Edited by Artur Gałkowski and Monika Weronika Kopytowska

This unique book, inspired by the work of Umberto Eco - one of the greatest semioticians of all times - provides a compelling overview of current developments in semiotic research, bringing together various academic voices and critical reflections on the nature and function of signs, signification, and communication. Contributors, including Eco himself, discuss the status quo of the discipline, its scope, theoretical orientations, and methodological approaches, shedding light on the cognitive and philosophical complexity of the meaning-making process and form–meaning interfaces. The book is an outcome of the SIVO Signum-Idea-Verbum-Opus project initiated by Umberto Eco’s keynote address during his visit at the University of Łódź in 2015. More theoretical insights and further explorations into contemporary semiosphere can be found in Current Perspectives in Semiotics: Texts, Genres, and Representations, published simultaneously by Peter Lang.

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Jessica Di Napoli

This book combines theoretical and experimental approaches to provide a comprehensive account of glottalization in word-final syllables in Italian. The speech production study at the heart of the book sheds light on the source of glottalization, the contextual factors determining its occurrence, and the acoustic correlates which characterize its production.

Acoustic analysis of words presenting evidence of glottalization is carried out through visual inspection of the acoustic signal together with spectral analysis of voice quality. Statistical analysis of the data in the study is performed using mixed effects models, as well as tree-based methods including conditional inference trees and random forests. Results of the study have implications for cross-linguistic studies on voice quality.

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Fachsprachliche Lexikographie

Konzeptionen von bilingualen Wörterbüchern der Fachsprache Wirtschaft für das Sprachenpaar Deutsch und Polnisch

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Joanna Konieczna-Serafin

Die Monographie konzentriert sich auf die Konzeptionen von deutsch-polnischen und polnisch-deutschen Wörterbüchern der Fachsprache Wirtschaft. Gegenstand der Analyse sind ausgewählte bilinguale und biskopale Nachschlagewerke, die im Zeitraum 1992-2013 in Polen erschienen sind. Die Untersuchung umfasst drei Ebenen: die Makro-, Mikro- und Mediostruktur der Wörterbücher. Im Rahmen dieser Strukturen behandelt die Monographie solche Fragen, wie Lemmaselektion, Präsentation lexikographischer Daten im Wörterbuch(artikel), Direktionalität des Wörterbuchs, die in jeder Konzeption relevant sind.