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Güven ÖZDOYRAN

The primary objective of An Inquiry into the Nature of Aesthetic Theory in Its Relation to Theory of Knowledge in Kant’s Critical Philosophy is to investigate Kant’s aesthetic theory and its problematic relation to theory of knowledge in his transcendental philosophy. In the Critique of Judgment, Kant constructs his aesthetic theory by arguing that the aesthetic experience is based on a certain type of feeling, namely, the feeling of pleasure, rather than a concept. He grounds such a feeling on the aesthetic judgment of reflection. In spite of its nonconceptual and subjective characteristic, an aesthetic reflective judgment still has a claim to be universally valid. Here, the feeling of pleasure in beautiful is produced by the free harmonious relation between the imagination and the understanding. Judgment, in its reflective employment, does not determine its object but determines the feeling of pleasure in the judging subject. On the other hand, the categories, as pure concepts of the understanding, carry nearly all the weight in his theory of knowledge presented in the Critique of Pure Reason. The imagination, in this case, is strictly bound up by the rules that are imposed by the concepts of the understanding. By this way, judgment, as a cognitive faculty, determines its object and gains its objective validity. In this context, this book discusses the nature of Kant’s aesthetic theory and the components that constitute a pure aesthetic judgment of reflection and attempts to clarify its proper place in critical philosophy regarding his theory of knowledge.

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Lógos and Máthēma 2

Studies in the Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics

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Roman Murawski

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Schlusslogische Letztbegründung

Festschrift für Kurt Walter Zeidler zum 65. Geburtstag

Edited by Lois Marie Rendl and Robert König

Die «Schlusslogische Letztbegründung» sucht Antwort auf die Frage: Wie ist Philosophie als Wissenschaft möglich? Sie führt damit das Projekt einer ontologisch relevanten Logik fort, das seit der Antike im Zentrum der Geschichte des Idealismus und der Transzendentalphilosophie steht.

Kurt Walter Zeidler liefert mit seinem Werk nicht nur eine eindringliche Aufarbeitung dieser Geschichte, sondern bemüht sich zugleich um deren systematische Weiterentwicklung. Fern den Moden seiner Zeit steht sein Denken in einer Tradition der Philosophie, die sich nicht Konjunkturen beugt und in Relativitäten verliert, sondern als Erkenntnis des lebendigen und logisch erschließbaren Absoluten begreift.

Lehrer, Wegbegleiter und Schüler setzen sich in dieser Festschrift mit Zeidlers Arbeiten auseinander.

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John Kachikwulu Ekwunife

At the heart of every marriage union among the Igbo people of Nigeria is the desire to have one’s own children, preferably male ones who will perpetuate the family name from generation to generation. Hence, no stone is left unturned to make sure that this aim is achieved in marriage. Oftentimes, this desire, despite every effort, is not realized by every married couple. Some marriages still remain childless. The precolonial Igbo were also confronted with childless marriages. But knowing the consequences of a childless marriage, they designed some methods of circumventing the problem. Almost all the methods they employed to make sure that no man died childless, which are extensively discussed in this work, are condemned by the Catholic Church. The Church proffered child adoption among other things as a solution to infertility in marriage. Child adoption, however, is frowned upon by some Igbo on the ground that it is against their culture. This situation, therefore, places some Igbo childless couples who want to remain faithful to the Christian faith on a crossroad of not knowing what to do in the face of infertility. The present work deals extensively on the meaning and ends of marriage among the Igbo people of Nigeria, on what it means to be childless among the Igbo, and on how the precolonial Igbo handled the situation as well as the importance of children in the Igbo family. The Church’s teaching on marriage before and after the Second Vatican Council and especially on childless marriages as found in Gaudium et spes is also discussed in a very elaborate way. Other important topics discussed in this work include the Church`s position on artificial reproductive technologies (ART); the meaning of child adoption; and the Igbo people`s knowledge, attitude, and perception about the practice of child adoption.

This work argues strongly that child adoption is something good and noble when it aims at the welfare of the child but at the same time not relegating the welfare of the adoptive parents to the background.

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Kant´s Notion of a Transcendental Schema

The Constitution of Objective Cognition between Epistemology and Psychology

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Lara Scaglia

The main aim of this book is to provide a critical and historical inquiry into Kant’s schematism chapter contained in the Critique of Pure Reason. More specifically, the book argues that Kant’s schematism chapter is a necessary step within the project of the Critique. It deals with a problem of its own, one which is not the object of the previous chapters: How can categories be applied to intuitions? The author shows that the term ‘schema’ has an interesting and long tradition of different philosophical uses that finds in the works of Kant a point of no-return. In the philosophical works written before Kant, the notion of schema did not have a specific and distinctive meaning and function of its own but was rather used in different contexts (from rhetoric to logic to psychology). After Kant, all philosophers who speak of schemata refer in one way or another back to Kant’s distinctive notion, which possesses a specific, epistemic meaning. Moreover, this book aims to provide a contribution to the understanding of the relation between philosophy and the sciences. It is by means of demonstrating the importance of the schematism chapter not only within the Critique but also from a broader perspective, deriving from the fact that Kant’s doctrine of schemata had an impressive influence not only on philosophers but also on psychologists.

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Human Being – Being Human

A Theological Anthropology in Biblical, Historical, and Ecumenical Perspective

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Dr. Dr. Billy Kristanto

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Edited by Ilona Błocian and Dmitry Prokudin

The book contains analyses and interpretations of multidimensional perspectives in philosophical, economical and psychological research on imagination. The authors analyse Russian (N. Bierdiajew) and French philosophy and anthropology (G. Bachelard, G. Durand), German conceptions (I. Kant's, F. Baader's, F. Schiller 's or Heideggerian interpretations) of the role of imagination in art, science and sociopolitical domains. Image and imagination play the main role in the contemporary social world. It is investigated by psychology, sociology and political sciences, and many subdisciplines of philosophy have their own traditions in approaches to image and imagination problem. The authors try to integrate the results of these research efforts.

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Giosuè Ghisalberti

Does Jesus remain concealed by the very traditions intended to portray him? History and theology define Jesus to be a 1st-century Galilean or the son of God, a man limited by his time and place or exalted as the Messiah and Christ. He has been recognized as a Jewish rabbi or the prophet of a coming apocalypse. The quest for the historical Jesus and theology’s Christ of faith may both be essential and undeniable in the history of scholarship. Secular historians and the Christian church have made their claims. Jesus’ self-conception, however, has been neglected, his consciousness largely ignored. A new interpretation of the gospels presents Jesus as a unprecedented human being who will "utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world" (Matt. 13:35) and make their meanings significant for the here and now. Jesus’ life from the virgin birth to the resurrection can neither be reduced to history’s scepticism nor theology’s affirmation. Is it possible to re-imagine the life and words of Jesus? He reveals himself to be a "first-born" who makes possible the second act of creation for every individual no less than for the social world.

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Dorota Leszczyna

El libro analiza los orígenes kantianos de la filosofía de Ortega desde su etapa inicial hasta las más tardías. Ortega descubre la filosofía de Kant cuando era un estudiante universitario, en Bilbao y Madrid, a través de los pocos trabajos sobre Kant y las traducciones de sus obras que entonces existían en España. Tras una primera lectura, y tras descubrir la filosofía germana, decide ampliar sus conocimientos en Alemania. Este viaje está influido también por las circunstancias de la España de la época: la degeneración intelectual y espiritual del país, la aversión por la ciencia y el desprecio por las ideas. En la filosofía alemana, especialmente en la de Kant, permanece la identidad de la filosofía y su carácter científico. Ortega estudió a Kant en Leipzig, Berlín y Marburgo, con grandes especialistas en su pensamiento como Wundt, Simmel, Riehl, Cohen y Natorp. Sin embargo, la ciudad más importante para él no fue ni Leipzig ni Berlín, sino la gótica Marburgo, situada en las orillas del río Lahn, a la que denomina en sus memorias «fuerte neokantiano» y «ciudadela neokantiana», recordando la filosofía que imperaba en su universidad. El hermetismo de la escuela kantiana marburguesa tenía para Ortega una doble vertiente: era, al mismo tiempo, tanto «su hogar y el aire con el que respiraba» como una «cárcel», era, en definitiva, «una adquisición eterna que había que conservar para poder ser otra cosa más allá».

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Edited by Joanna Długosz, Jan C. Joerden, Elżbieta Paszyńska and Florian Steger

This volume contains contributions from the international and interdisciplinary scientific conference "Ethics and the Law in Medicine – in Research and Healthcare", which took place at the Faculty of Law and Administration of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. The contributions to these proceedings encompass a broad spectrum of current medico-ethical questions that arise in particular disciplines. Compared to monographic works, interdisciplinary anthologies have the advantage of bringing together scientists from different disciplines into conversation on controversial issues from different scientific perspectives. The aim is an interdisciplinary discussion on challenging questions in medicine – conducted from different viewpoints. The volume's contributions also highlight differences in the analysis and assessment of medico-ethical dilemmas due to socio-cultural differences.