Der islamische Prophet Muhammad ist einst mit einem theologischen Programm in theokratischer Gestalt angetreten. Da der Koran Christen und Juden vielfach anspricht und zu Stellungnahmen auffordert, ist eine theologische Antwort legitim und notwendig. Der vorliegende Band behandelt unter Einbeziehung aktueller islamwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse die Quellen des Korans, die Grundzüge seines Verhältnisses zum Judentum und sein Jesusbild. Daraus ergeben sich sowohl eine realistische Bewertung des Islam als auch Impulse für ein christliches Selbstverständnis. Das 4. Kapitel stellt die weithin unbekannten Sichtweisen des jüdischen Philosophen Franz Rosenzweig und des Theologen Joseph Ratzinger/Benedikt XVI. auf den Islam hin vor – als entscheidende Orientierungshilfe jenseits von Unterwerfung.
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Den Islam theologisch beantworten
Theologische, kulturwissenschaftliche und religionspädagogische Perspektiven
Edited by Hermann Josef Riedl and Dorothee Schlenke
Die Weihnachtsvorlesung gehört zu den fest etablierten Veranstaltungen der Pädagogischen Hochschule Freiburg. Jedes Jahr referieren Wissenschaftler*innen aus der Perspektive ihrer jeweiligen Disziplin zum Thema „Weihnachten". Der vorliegende Band dokumentiert eine Reihe dieser interdisziplinären Weihnachtsvorlesungen, präsentiert neue Beiträge und bildet so die gesellschaftlich-kulturelle Präsenz und Popularität des Weihnachtsfestes ab. Das Spektrum der Aufsätze reicht von theologischen Artikeln wie „Weihnachten im Alten Testament?" und „Weihnachten bei Martin Luther" bis zu kulturwissenschaftlichen Beiträgen wie „Weihnachtsszenen im Theater" und religionspädagogischen Aufsätzen wie „Der große Gott wird ein kleines Kind".
Edited by Bacem Dziri and Merdan Güneş
Vorstellungen eines Niedergangs der islamischen Welt – ob bereits erfolgt, sich abzeichnend oder prognostiziert – drücken sich in einer Fülle von Thesen und Erzählungen zu Kultur, Literatur, Mentalität, Theologie und Geschichte derselben aus. Die Autorinnen und Autoren dieses Bandes setzen sich kritisch mit den Annahmen, Ausdrucksformen und Konsequenzen dieser Vorstellungen auseinander. Sie spüren dabei dem historischen Aufkommen einzelner Niedergangsthesen und ihrer Narrative nach und verweisen bisweilen auf Alternativen zu den jeweiligen Facetten dieser Großerzählung.
Concepts of a decline in the Islamic world - whether already occurred, looming or forecasted - are expressed in a wealth of theses and narratives on culture, literature, mentality, theology and history of the same. The authors of this volume deal critically with the assumptions, forms of expression and consequences of these ideas. In doing so, they trace the historical emergence of individual decline theses and their narratives and sometimes point out alternatives to the respective facets of this master narrative.
An exegetical-theological study of Jer 38,1-13 and 39,15-18
This book examines the oracle of deliverance that Yhwh communicated to Ebed-melech, the Cushite (Jer 39,15-18). In order to comprehend this analeptically presented promise, however, the research also scrutinizes two other related events in Jeremiah’s mission in the context of Jer 37–39: i) the unpleasant incident in which the Jerusalem officials maliciously threw the Lord’s messenger into the muddy cistern (Jer 38,1–6) and ii) Ebed-melech’s benevolent intervention to rescue the prophet from the water reservoir (Jer 38,7-13). In this monograph, the author uses the historical-critical method and rhetorical & narrative analyses.
Theology and Lived Experience
This book argues that Martin Luther did not enforce his own strict theological convictions about women and their nature when he personally corresponded with women throughout his daily life. This becomes clear with Luther’s interactions with female family members and Reformation women. With these encounters, he did not maintain his theological attitudes and made exceptions to his own theology for such influential women. Luther also did not enforce his theology throughout his pastoral care where he treated both men and women respectfully and equally. His pastoral work shows that he allowed his compassion and empathy to win over his own strict theological convictions about women. It is important to remember that Luther not only wrote about women in the abstract, but also lived both his public and private life among women. However, there have been no comprehensive studies that have examined his theological writings about women and personal encounters with women. For this reason, fundamental aspects of Luther have remained in the dark. As actions speak louder than words, scholars need to include the practical, as well as the theoretical when analyzing his attitudes towards women. This book not only contributes to a more nuanced understanding of Luther’s theological views on women, but also how those views compare to his actual social encounters with women. This work highlights the necessity to explore Luther’s personal encounters with women, as well as his theology when trying to provide an authentic assessment of the reformer’s attitudes towards women.
Leben, Legende und Rezeption bei Aleviten, Schiiten und Sunniten
Ali bin Abi Talib (gest. 661) gilt bei Aleviten, Schiiten und Sunniten als charismatische Männergestalt. Als Wegbegleiter des Propheten Muhammad wurde er Verheißungen zuteil. Diese Umstände sorgten später im fiktiven Bewusstsein einiger Kreise dafür, dass sie ihm eine halbtheologische und halbmythologische Identität zuschrieben. Aufgrund seiner Askese und seiner Heldentaten wurde er nach seinem Tod im Glauben einiger Gruppen zur theologischen und mythologischen Bezugsperson. Die interdisziplinäre Forschung zeigt die historische Biographie Alis und die seiner Söhne auf. Der Autor untersucht ihre Rezeption bei Aleviten, Schiiten und Sunniten und verdeutlicht ihre gesellschaftliche Bedeutung. Abschließend analysiert er die an Ali und seinen Nachfahren gewidmeten Schreinkomplexe.
Edited by Cyril Levitt
This book focuses on the beginnings of capitalism in Central Europe with emphasis on the German-speaking areas from the 14th to the 17th century. It also reviews and assesses the writings on the topic by the most important thinkers of the twentieth century. At the center of the presentation are the developments in mining, metallurgy, smelting, book publishing, clock making, ship building and advances in trade, commerce and finance. This book will be of interest to students of medieval and early modern European history, the so-called transition debate of feudalism to capitalism, social scientists and historians who are interested in the various transitions in human history, and philosophers who follow developments in the changing issues regarding freedom and bondage over the course of human development. Anthropologists who are familiar with Krader’s writings on the development of the Asiatic mode of production will be interested to see how Krader treats this transition from feudalism to capitalism by way of comparison and contrast.
Stephen Strehle continues his detailed analysis of the secular forces that shape the modern world in this second and final volume to the study, offering a fresh perspective and solid philosophical, theological, and historical conclusions from his years of research. He continues to find forces of secularity embodied in social or political institutions, cultural dispositions or interests, and new or disturbing intellectual realities that challenge former religious perspectives. The present work starts out examining two powerful institutions of culture, the American university and Hollywood, and explains their place in promoting the secular mentality. The study then shows the secular mentality permeating society as the culture starts to accent the materialistic concerns of technology and divorce religion from the practical and social concerns of everyday life. The study completes the analysis with a discussion of intellectual problems that confront the old-time religion or even the very possibility of faith in the modern world, particularly pointing to the rise of biblical criticism and the rejection of all God-talk among critical philosophers. Like the first volume, the present work is accessible to most upper-level and graduate students in a wide-variety of disciplines, keeping technical and foreign words to a minimum and leaving scholarly details or debates to its extensive notes.
The Creative Wisdom of Jesus
Carole J. Lambert
The goal of this book is to suggest that Jesus as a creative artist was heavily influenced by the Hebrew Bible’s Book of Proverbs. It posits that he created some of his short parables from specific verses found in Proverbs, suggests that he expanded some basic sapient themes present in this book when composing his parables, and shows him reacting negatively to the commonly held belief that this Book’s overall concept of wisdom is that the wise are rewarded and the fools are punished by God through their own self-destructive choices and subsequent actions.
Thus this text points to Jesus as an inventive artist, a concept not usually associated with him, and it complicates simplistic ways of defining biblical wisdom. Part I demonstrates how Jesus might have created his tales from specific proverbs found in the Book of Proverbs. The overarching theme for these parables is wisdom: Jesus as wisdom (I Cor. 1:24) speaking wisdom in new ways.
Part II discusses Jesus as a self-actualized artist who creatively designed these tales. It examines what shaped Jesus’ artistry, what might have been the sources of his literacy, why he might have chosen to expand individual proverbs imaginatively in order to create his moral tales, and how his wisdom enhanced conventional attitudes toward wisdom as the former included and clarified his new "kingdom of God" concepts.
This book could be used in courses treating Literature and the Bible, Biblical Art, The Humanity of Jesus, and Wisdom Literature Common to Christians and Jews.
The Symbolic Structure of Eternal Recurrence in Thus Spoke Zarathustra
This book argues that Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra employs circular and cyclical (diurnal and seasonal) symbols to communicate both the life-affirmative and the cosmological aspect of "recurrence" as a unifying idea. It shows that twelve day cycles, which run throughout the book’s narrative, and the one full annual cycle, which encompasses the circular and the diurnal images in a continuous cycle of life affirmation, track Zarathustra’s ever-changing identity throughout the text. In representing the eternal recurrence, the circular and the cyclical symbols respectively convey the book’s central message: Zarathustra comes into being in order to affirm existence as the teacher of eternal recurrence in an endlessly repeating cosmos. The study complements recent findings that Nietzsche’s book is on eternal recurrence by establishing the unity among its language, structure, and fundamental conception, which solves the century-old problem of the communication or location of the doctrine within the text. The book is designed for the specialised audience of Nietzsche studies. It would also appeal to both students and professors in various disciplines across humanities and social sciences, as well as to anyone interested in understanding the basic tenets of Thus Spoke Zarathustra.