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Edited by Fabio Caputo Dalpra and Anders-Christian Jacobsen

What is a human being according to Augustine of Hippo? This question has occupied a group of researchers from Brazil and Europe and has been explored at two workshops during which the contributors to this volume have discussed anthropological themes in Augustine’s vast corpus. In this volume, the reader will find articles on a wide spectrum of Augustine’s anthropological ideas. Some contributions focus on specific texts, while others focus on specific theological or philosophical aspects of Augustine’s anthropology. The authors of the articles in this volume are convinced that Augustine’s anthropology is of major importance for how human beings have been understood in Western civilization for better or for worse. The topic is therefore highly relevant to present times in which humanity is under pressure from various sides.

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The Question of Understanding Otherwise

Rehabilitating the Interpretation of Art

Claes Entzenberg

Interpretation has historically been understood as a method to shrink the distance between the interpreter and the interpreted. This view has dominated the comprehension of the interpretation of art: it always entails the interpretation of something, and this something must then govern our effort to understand it. If not, we are left with mere subjective whims. This book tries to modify this well-worn view by altering the dualist position to incorporate the very object within the sense-making activity. Interpretation rather becomes the creative making of something different, and this explains why it is deemed unfinished. The notion of “re-contextualization” covers this in between operation (between work and interpretation), and the very object of interpretation remains just an enabling condition of transference. Interpretation preserves the challenge, by re-making and re-locating meaning.
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A Ray of the Qur’ān: Selected Essays of Sayyed Mahmoud Taleghani, Volume I

Sūrah Al-Fātiḥah/1 and Sūrah Al-Baqarah/2: 1-143

Edited by Mariam Agah

The study and explanation of Sūrah Al-Fātihah and verses 1-143 of Sūrah Al-Baqara make up Volume I of A Ray of the Qur’ān. Sayyed Mahmoud Taleghani follows the traditional ordinal presentation of these two chapters of the Qur’ān. Appropriately, he begins his commentary with the first Sūrah: "The Opening.” He considers this Sūrah to be an invitation to people to recognize their creator and sustainer by knowing Allah’s attribute of mercy and as the giver of guidance to the straight path. Likewise, Taleghani invites people through another name given to this Sūrah, Al Hamd/The Praise, to praise their Lord exclusively. 

Taleghani’s approach to the Qur’ān is holistic. This is evident in his reading of the initial five verses of Sūrah Al-Baqara as containing the foundational, pivotal notions that inform the grand ideas and the details of not only the rest of the Sūrah, but indeed the entire Qur’ān. The word taqwā, used in Sūrah Al-Baqara and throughout the Qur’ān, is sometimes translated as piety or fear of God but the full breadth of the term, as Taleghani shows, is better expressed in the phrase "to safeguard oneself with full awareness of divine laws." Those who show taqwā are made aware of the prophetic mission, and are assured of the hereafter if they accept and follow it in their thoughts and deeds. Thus, the reader is introduced in Sūrah Al-Baqara to Taleghani’s vision of the Qur’ān, whereby, a ray from this book is said to touch the minds and hearts of those with taqwa and to launch them on their search for the truth. This is one way Taleghani distinguishes the Holy Qur’ān from other books.

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Ausführliche Darstellung der kurzen Ausdrucksformen der Grundlagen der Prosodie

Basṭ al-maqbūḍ fī mabādiʾ ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ Maḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Maǧīd b. b. Kīrān (Mit einem zusätzlichen Kurztraktat des Verfassers zur balāġa)

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Habib El Mallouki

In der islamischen Geschichte stand die Poesie im Mittelpunkt des kulturellen und wissenschaftlichen Lebens. In diesem Zusammenhang zählt die Abhandlung Basṭ al-maqbūḍ fī mabādiʾ ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ von Maḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Maǧīd b. ʿAbd as-Salām b. Kīrān (gest. 1214 n. Hiǧra / 1799 n. Chr.) zu den seltenen Manuskripten im Bereich der Erforschung früherer arabischer Gedichte sowie deren Metrik (ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ). Nach einer inhaltlichen Darstellung der Abhandlung erläutert der Verfasser die Grundprinzipien der Metrik (ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ) und ordnet sie in stringenter Reihenfolge. In dieser Edition wird der Abhandlung Basṭ al-maqbūḍ fī mabādiʾ ʿilm al-ʿarūḍ ein Kurztraktat desselben Verfassers beigefügt, in dem eine Auseinandersetzung mit den drei Zweigen der arabischen Rhetorik (balāġa) vorgenommen wird.

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Ethique chrétienne et développement durable

Au fondement d’une éthique chrétienne et environnementale face aux défis du développement durable

Alain Boubag

Loin d’être un phénomène absolument inédit dans l’histoire de l’humanité, la crise
sanitaire liée à la covid-19 en constitue plutôt une constante. Elle advient non seulement
comme un fait divers, mais intervient comme un véritable vecteur de révolution. À dire
vrai, au-delà des dégâts qu’elle inflige individuellement à ses victimes, elle bouleverse
de manière relativement profonde un certain nombre de pratiques que l’on tendait à
estimer aussi immuables que les fondements de la terre. Il serait impossible au préfacier
et fastidieux pour ses destinataires d’égrainer ici la litanie exhaustive des cas de mutations
culturelles issues des épidémies. Il nous suffit juste, pour nous en convaincre, de nous
souvenir, comme l’a démontré récemment Kyle Harper, que la chute de l’empire romain
s’explique par la propagation des maladies. Plus proche de nos jours, au siècle dernier, un
ensemble de catastrophes sanitaires ont considérablement changé nos moeurs culinaires
et nos traditions alimentaires.
Ces situations donnent à penser que la durabilité de l’homme tient aussi à sa manière
d’habiter la terre ou de cohabiter avec les autres vivants aussi microscopiques soient-ils.
Cette fragilité, que la volonté de puissance effrénée de l’homme sur son environnement
pourrait enfouir dans l’oubli ou dans le refoulement, revient sans cesse à la surface à
la faveur des épidémies qui surgissent de manière répétitive dans notre histoire. Il se
construit donc une sorte d’articulation entre la durabilité de l’homme et son rapport à la
nature.
Alain Patrick Anicet Boubag, dont nous suivons le parcours intellectuel depuis ses étapes
initiales jusqu’aux sommets actuels de la spécialisation, projette un faisceau de lumière
sur cette dialectique homme-nature. Il interroge les influences réciproques de ces deux
entités à l’aide des principes de l’éthique chrétienne. La réflexion qu’il propose est
manifestement brûlante d’actualité. Elle ne saurait, de ce fait, laisser indifférent aucun
esprit raisonnablement constitué. En effet, même si le christianisme ne représente pas
une référence déterminante pour nos options existentielles, ces dernières se vivent dans
un espace culturel où l’impact, même discret ou inconscient de cette religion, demeure
effectif. Le réalisme recommande donc de s’intéresser à la pensée chrétienne en matière
environnementale
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Ewa Szumilewicz

Cognition is a paradoxical process, from the moment of the formation of human subjectivity, through its relationship with the Other (or more precisely: l'autre) and with the world, to the ontological status of the world as such. This is what this book has at stake.

The book deals with selected aspects of poststructural thought which are introduced into the language of contemporary science, prose, and poetry. Such an enterprise is possible by treating philosophy, science, and poetry as languages which can try to enter into a dialogue through metaphors. This is the ground on which the project is implemented.

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Performing Christ

South African Protest Theatre and the Theological Dramatic Theory of Hans Urs von Balthasar

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Marthinus J. Havenga

In the latter part of the twentieth century, against the backdrop of the Sharpeville Massacre and the Soweto Uprising, theatre became a central means of artistic resistance in apartheid South Africa. One of the most significant plays from this time was Woza Albert!, which was created and staged by the actor-duo Percy Mtwa and Mbongeni Ngema, with the help and creative input of the renowned theatre-maker and political activist, Barney Simon. What made this protest play so powerful and provocative was the fact that it restaged the Christ-drama, as presented in the Gospels, in the context of apartheid South Africa. This book sets out to explore this performance of Christ during one of the darkest hours in South Africa’s history, by turning to – and offering an in-depth investigation of – the theological dramatic theory of the Swiss Catholic theologian, Hans Urs von Balthasar.

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Die Flucht in der Verfolgung – eine legitime Alternative zu Martyrium oder Apostasie?

Tertullians Traktat "de fuga in persecutione" im historischen und theologischen Kontext seiner Zeit

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Daniel Greb

In seinem Traktat de fuga in persecutione bezieht der frühchristliche Theologe Tertullian v. Karthago (ca. 160–220 n. Chr.) Stellung zur Frage, ob es für Christen erlaubt sei, in der Verfolgung zu fliehen. Seine ebenso von der klassischen Rhetorik wie der stoischen Philosophie und dem Kontakt zum Montanismus beeinflusste Argumentation kommt zu einem klaren Ergebnis: Einzig Standhaftigkeit und Martyriumsbereitschaft können die rechte Antwort auf die Verfolgung sein. Die vorliegende Publikation bietet eine Einleitung, Übersetzung und umfassende Kommentierung dieser Schrift und versucht, sie mittels eines multiperspektivischen Ansatzes im historischen und theologischen Kontext ihrer Zeit auszulegen.

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Edited by Cyril Levitt and Sabine Sander

This posthumously published work by Lawrence Krader surveys the study of myths from ancient times (in classical Greece and Rome, Egypt, Babylon, Akkad, Sumer, China), in the Biblical traditions, of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Australia, and from Northeastern and Central Asia. It also covers the various approaches to the study of myth in Europe in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Enlightenment, and the Romantic movement in the late eighteenth and early to mid-nineteenth century; it discusses evolutionist, structuralist, hermeneutic, and linguistic approaches. The book covers on the one hand the treatment of myth from the inside, that is from the experience of those committed to the myth, and on the other the perspective of those ethnologists, philosophers and other students of myth who are outsiders. Krader takes up the theme of esoteric and exoteric myths as he rejects some of the assumptions and approaches to the study of myth from the past while singling out others for approval and inclusion in his general theory of myth. The book includes a discussion of myth in science and in infinitesimal mathematics. It also considers the relationship between myth and ideology in the twentieth century in relation to politics and power. It both incorporates and broadens Krader’s theory of nature as a manifold consisting of different orders of space-time which he developed in his magnum opus Noetics: The Science of Thinking and Knowing.

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Theory of Power

Marx, Foucault, Neo-Zapatismo

Carlos Antonio Aguirre Rojas

The subject of power (singular) and multiple social powers (plural) is unquestionably central to contemporary societies all over the globe. Growing stronger and expanding farther all the time, the world’s anti-systemic movements have been forced to address this issue—the nature of power and powers—as among their most pressing debates. In the process, these movements have also been forced to consider the best possible strategy for confronting them. Should they seize political power, even if they run the risk of simply reproducing it? Should they destroy it altogether? Is it enough to destroy political power while economic, ideological, military, and religious powers remain untouched? And what is the most effective anti-capitalist and anti-systemic way to confront, defeat, and overcome the many different powers found in all present-day societies on Earth? To answer such questions, among others, this book discusses the rich, complex contributions of Karl Marx, Michel Foucault, and neo-Zapatismo to a complicated and essential subject: the theory of power.