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Free Speech Theory

Understanding the Controversies


Edited by Helen J. Knowles and Brandon T. Metroka

The rallying cry of "Free speech!" has long served as a touchstone for liberals and conservatives, alike, engaged in political polarization conflict and discourse. The democratization of media and the feverish pitch of political polarization, however, have contributed to the weaponization of free expression. From Colin Kaepernick to "fake news," boycotts of partisan television programming to removals of Confederate monuments, internet neutrality to the silencing of college professors and all points between, citizens and pundits all too frequently wield the slogan of "Free speech!" as the sword and shield of political discourse. Oftentimes, ironically they do so with little regard for the views of their opponents. As a result, society risks trading a substantive value for an empty slogan or, far worse, blind authority.To rediscover the underlying assumptions and social values served by free expression, and to move current controversies beyond rhetorical flourishes, Helen J. Knowles and Brandon T. Metroka assemble an impressive group of legal and political scholars to address one overarching question: "Why should we value free speech?" Through analyses of several recent controversies invoking concerns for free expression, the contributors to this volume make complex political theory accessible, informative, and entertaining. Beginning with internet neutrality and ending with an overview of developing free expression controversies in comparable western democracies, experts reestablish the link between free expression and the underlying values it may serve. In doing so, this volume unearths values previously unexamined in our modern—but increasingly impoverished and bitter—political discourse.

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Yaneli Leal del Ojo de la Cruz

El patrimonio urbano del sur de La Habana sistematiza por primera vez la historia urbana del sur del antiguo municipio La Habana, amplia zona donde vive el mayor porcentaje de población de la capital, y existen altos valores patrimoniales. Constituye un documento básico para el estudio histórico, urbano y arquitectónico de conocidos barrios como Jesús del Monte, Luyanó, La Víbora, Arroyo Apolo, entre otros.

Como herramienta de utilidad para gestores y conservadores del patrimonio, utiliza la historiografía como base para la identificación y preservación de la zona de valor patrimonial. Para ello, caracteriza la relación del territorio con el resto de la ciudad, antes y durante el proceso de conformación urbana; identifica los aspectos sociales, económicos y legales que condicionaron su evolución; reconstruye históricamente y caracteriza el proceso de ocupación física del espacio; y valora los elementos que deberían definir su zona urbana de valor histórico cultural.

Este libro se apoya en el análisis de fuentes primarias de información y publicaciones del siglo XVI al XX, para completar los vacios historiográficos referentes a la conformación del sur de la capital cubana, espacio de gran heterogeneidad, complejidad social y riqueza cultural.

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A World Transformed

Reflections on the International System, China and Global Development

Danilo Türk

The main theme of the book are transformations of the world community at the political level and at the level of the international institutions. The book explores the currently precarious state of an emerging multipolar world at the time of the peaceful rise of China. It starts with the basic political and geopolitical features, followed by a discussion on norms, values and institutions of the organized international community, and the potential of international law in the face of political instability and crises. The rise of China is discussed in its various aspects: economic and political, with particular regard to the recent turning of China outward, the Belt and Road Initiative and its evolving cooperation with the European Union. The third part of the book is devoted to development as seen from the perspective of the United Nations and the evolving conceptualization of development. In the final chapters emphasis is placed on the issues of multilateralism and the basic precepts for the future peaceful transformation of the world: There exist different types and sources of state legitimacy and different development models that can co-exist and co-evolve. Significantly, such a transformation requires respect for the fundamentals of international law, in particular sovereignty of states. Building new or reforming existing international institutions is possible only on this basis.

The book could be used in courses on international relations and law at universities in all countries, either as a basic or a supplementary source. It would be also useful to journalists and researchers.

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Anita Oberda-Monkiewicz

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Swedish Foreign Policy, 1809–2019

A Comprehensive Modern History

Graeme D. Eddie

Starting with 1809, Sweden’s ‘year zero’ and a period of deep national trauma, this book studies the relationship between Sweden and its environment, and foreign policy and overlapping security and defence policies. The book displays the pattern to Swedish foreign policy behavior, at times solidarity and involvement, at times disengagement and isolation, depending on the actions of larger powers in the neighbourhood. The author examines Sweden’s independence from, dependence on, orientation towards, and then acquiescence in Europe, and the release of a ‘revolution’ in Swedish foreign policy from the early 1990s. The author also studies a process of steady Swedish Europeanization and the emergence of a post-neutral stance. The book’s endpoint is the European Parliamentary election 2019, which resulted in a stemming of the populist tide in Sweden which had grown from disconnection between a Europe-reluctant electorate and Europe-enthusiastic politicians. The book also looks towards Swedish policy ambitions and prospects for the 2020s and continuation of the ‘revolution’.

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Ethnic diversity and local governance quality

The case of Opole Province in Poland

Wojciech Opioła and Bartosz Czepil

The book is devoted to relations between the ethnic diversity and the quality of governance at the local level. Opolskie province in Poland is a case for explaining this interdependence. That is because of its history of multiculturalism and the present state of its ethnic diversity. The important feature of this region is, that nearly half of the communes is ethnically homogenous when the rest is ethnically diversified with a strong position of German and Silesian minorities. The preliminary assumption was, that the quality of governance would be higher in communes characterized by ethnic diversity. On the basis of the nested analysis method, authors conducted quantitative and qualitative analysis.  
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Edited by Lucio Levi

Albert Einstein was one of the initiators of the peace movement in Europe in the early twentieth century. He tirelessly denounced the imperfections of society due to the primitive institution of war and devoted his energies to outlawing war. After Hitler’s rise to power, he abandoned pacifism and instead embraced a federalist vision according to which the root cause of war lies in the division of the world into sovereign states and the vehicle of peace is world government.

This book explores Einstein’s outlook on war and peace and traces the evolution of his thinking on these topics. In particular, Einstein developed a dialogue on war and peace with physicists like Bohr, Planck and Szilard as well intellectuals like Dewey, Freud, Gandhi, Mann, Mumford, Rolland Russell, Schweitzer and Tagore. The key concepts that were the focus of these discussions were the cause of war (included the Einstein–Freud debate on psychological and political causes of war) and the means to prevent it; the distinction between antimilitarism, pacifism, internationalism and federalism; and the dividing line between intergovernmental and supranational organizations.

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Realism and Revolution

Why (Some) Revolutionary States Go to War

Paul Ewenstein

This book argues that revolutionary wars are generally the product not of ideological fervor but of a desire for territorial gain, encouraged either by a perception of the revolutionary state’s weakness or the chaos caused by shifting borders. However, these are short-term problems, manifesting in the first few years after the revolution, if at all. In the longer run, it is the decision of the revolutionaries over whether or not to adopt a revisionist ideology and the reaction of the international system to that ideology that determines if the revolutionary state will remain conflict-prone. The truth of this theory is demonstrated both by an analysis of the historical record and through case studies of the Iranian, French, Turkish, and Bolivian Revolutions, as well as an examination of the Arab Spring. Finally, the book considers the theoretical lessons to be gleaned from a study of revolutionary conflict and offers some thoughts regarding its future. This book is a valuable resource both for those interested in revolutions and for students of international conflict, and is the only comprehensive work on the subject to take into account recent developments in revolution such as the Arab Spring.

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A Suffering People Under State Terrorism

Edited by Sabria Chowdhury Balland

Bangladesh: A Suffering People Under State Terrorism explores the destructive political situation in Bangladesh under the one-party and one-person rule of the despotic Sheikh Hasina. The contributors to this edited collection examine the catastrophic political environment of the country in view of the Hasina regime’s relentless oppression and repression since 2009, the authoritarian rule of her father in the early 1970s as well as the topic of Indian political, cultural and economic hegemony to which this dictatorial regime is increasingly surrendering Bangladesh's national interest, integrity and sovereignty. The contributors also attempt to expose the wholesale corruption and unprecedented vote-rigging that have rendered the regime completely illegal and illegitimate. They also highlight how the regime has been clinging to power by systemically unleashing terror and tyranny through its widespread networks of state machinery.