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Edited by Lucio Levi
Albert Einstein was one of the initiators of the peace movement in Europe in the early twentieth century. He tirelessly denounced the imperfections of society due to the primitive institution of war and devoted his energies to outlawing war. After Hitler’s rise to power, he abandoned pacifism and instead embraced a federalist vision according to which the root cause of war lies in the division of the world into sovereign states and the vehicle of peace is world government.
This book explores Einstein’s outlook on war and peace and traces the evolution of his thinking on these topics. In particular, Einstein developed a dialogue on war and peace with physicists like Bohr, Planck and Szilard as well intellectuals like Dewey, Freud, Gandhi, Mann, Mumford, Rolland Russell, Schweitzer and Tagore. The key concepts that were the focus of these discussions were the cause of war (included the Einstein–Freud debate on psychological and political causes of war) and the means to prevent it; the distinction between antimilitarism, pacifism, internationalism and federalism; and the dividing line between intergovernmental and supranational organizations.
1969–1974 : Le temps d'une genèse entravée
Les années 1969-1974 furent assurément un temps majeur de transition à la fois pour la coopération entre Paris et Bonn et pour la construction européenne. Un regard renouvelé s’impose. Cet ouvrage étudie les relations franco-allemandes sous un angle franco-allemand ; dresser la typologie des divergences-convergences permet de cerner consensus et compromis. Si De Gaulle et Adenauer ont solennellement proclamé la réconciliation entre les deux anciennes nations ennemies, c’est avec Georges Pompidou et Willy Brandt que le traité de l’Elysée va enfin être mis en œuvre et que le moteur franco-allemand démarre vraiment. Dans leur politique extérieure face à l’URSS, Pompidou et Brandt parvinrent même à la fusion de leurs intérêts. Etudier au travers d’un champ de forces multiscalaires en constante action, surtout à partir de 1973, infirme le tableau convenu de l’« eurosclérose » des années 1970. Ce livre éclaire ainsi d’un regard nouveau la deuxième phase de la construction européenne, alors que l’objectif pompidolien d’un « gaullisme européen » prenait forme. Ainsi peut-on mieux cibler les responsabilités, et mettre en évidence combien les relations internationales ont broyé ce take-off européen.
Why (Some) Revolutionary States Go to War
This book argues that revolutionary wars are generally the product not of ideological fervor but of a desire for territorial gain, encouraged either by a perception of the revolutionary state’s weakness or the chaos caused by shifting borders. However, these are short-term problems, manifesting in the first few years after the revolution, if at all. In the longer run, it is the decision of the revolutionaries over whether or not to adopt a revisionist ideology and the reaction of the international system to that ideology that determines if the revolutionary state will remain conflict-prone. The truth of this theory is demonstrated both by an analysis of the historical record and through case studies of the Iranian, French, Turkish, and Bolivian Revolutions, as well as an examination of the Arab Spring. Finally, the book considers the theoretical lessons to be gleaned from a study of revolutionary conflict and offers some thoughts regarding its future. This book is a valuable resource both for those interested in revolutions and for students of international conflict, and is the only comprehensive work on the subject to take into account recent developments in revolution such as the Arab Spring.
A Suffering People Under State Terrorism
Edited by Sabria Chowdhury Balland
Bangladesh: A Suffering People Under State Terrorism explores the destructive political situation in Bangladesh under the one-party and one-person rule of the despotic Sheikh Hasina. The contributors to this edited collection examine the catastrophic political environment of the country in view of the Hasina regime’s relentless oppression and repression since 2009, the authoritarian rule of her father in the early 1970s as well as the topic of Indian political, cultural and economic hegemony to which this dictatorial regime is increasingly surrendering Bangladesh's national interest, integrity and sovereignty. The contributors also attempt to expose the wholesale corruption and unprecedented vote-rigging that have rendered the regime completely illegal and illegitimate. They also highlight how the regime has been clinging to power by systemically unleashing terror and tyranny through its widespread networks of state machinery.
A Cultural Textbook
This book covers the integration of Syrian refugees in Germany, especially eastern Germany. In this novel genre of “teddytext” the author visibly reacts with scholarly evidence to explain how eastern and western perspectives converge and differ. The author guides refugee integration by showing Syrians how Germans think, and vice versa. First comes a panoramic overview of the West’s “Diversity Transition,” now changing ethnic to mixed societies. The rescue effort is both corporatized and voluntary process-action, a mass form of government-civil society cooperation modernizing and speeding up conventional integration processes. Main obstacles include the national east-west split, the east’s capital strike, and governmental efforts to manage Germany’s spoiled identity through politicized stigma management imposed via the remembrance policy. These together make easterners second class citizens. Former refugees are ethnic victim groups unable to take full part in Germany’s corporation-colonized lifeworld. This includes former Prussians and returned USSR German settlers whose political awakening seized on refugees in a struggle for power to oppose the remembrance policy. Brandenburgers oppose refugee integration through Know-Nothingism, deception, and ostracism, in part because refugee integration would threaten their “dirty togetherness” social organization. Nonetheless, refugees interviewed and examined in Berlin and Brandenburg are educated, motivated and, despite their traumatized condition, determined to stay and succeed. Their integration is happening more quickly and promises to be more completely successful than ever before. Improved skills recognition and refugee education are keys. Integration would be even better if Germany itself were integrated.
A Worldwide Tragedy
Marcílio de Freitas and Marilene Corrêa da Silva Freitas
The Future of Amazonia in Brazil: A Worldwide Tragedy is a study on the importance of protecting Amazonia, constructing its sustainable development and its articulations with worldwide socioeconomic processes. It analyzes the main contemporary polemics from the perspective of culture and the nature sciences. The authors present the importance of Amazonia and the sustainability to mankind and the planet’s future. They warn governments, politicians, teachers, students, environmentalists and societies in general that its ecological destruction is ongoing. This book shows that the predatory capitalism has no heuristic reach to build peace, and at the same time exploit the resources of nature preserving its biomes and the natural cycles. Political actions to make Amazonia into patrimony of mankind start to gain predictable contours. The authors present new ways for Amazonia and mankind.
Dismantling Neo-Colonial Hierarchy Through an Ethic of Lovingkindness
The book draws links between colonial and neo-colonial power structures which have sought to maintain hierarchies of dominance, resulting in cruel practices towards people at the bottom of the hierarchy and animals, who, in a colonial mindset, only exist for human gain. To counter these harm-based ideologies, and practices, veganism, as an ethical movement, is seeking to give voice to all those who support animals, and the rights of animals, while also seeking to give a voice to animals themselves. Additionally, veganism seeks to challenge the old-guard power structures and cruel practices perpetuated by colonial and neo-colonial systems associated with the dominant Ego power structure. Vegan ethics represent a shift from the dominant Ego model of human relations represented by a pyramid of power towards an Eco model of human relationships in which all Beings have equal worth and agency.
Die Deutschen in Triest 1880–1920
Die Deutschen waren im Triest der habsburgischen Spätzeit die drittgrößte Nationalität nach Italienern und Slowenen. Der Autor beschreibt, wie deutsche Wirtschaftstreibende, Freiberufler, Beamte und Arbeiter das gesellschaftliche Leben der Stadt mitprägten, sei es in Kooperation oder Konfrontation zu den anderen Nationalitäten. Besonders im Schulwesen und in unterschiedlichen Vereinigungen erlangten die Triester Deutschen eine größere Bedeutung, als es ihre Zahl vermuten ließe. Mit dem Anschluss Triests an Italien nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg ging das deutsche gesellschaftliche Leben fast gänzlich zu Ende – sein Erbe jedoch ist noch hie und da spürbar.
The Icelandic Female Council Manager
Eva Marín Hlynsdóttir
The importance of local authorities in modern states continues to grow regarding service delivery and policy-making. As the role of local authorities has grown, so has the prestige and importance of the top manager positions at the local level. Traditionally, women’s advancement into these top-echelon positions has been much slower than into positions at the lower levels of local government. So how and when do women get hired into these positions? Is their career advancement similar to that of their male peers, or are there notable differences between the sexes? And are women really only hired as change agents during times of crisis? The author provides answers to these questions and more by focusing on the career advancement of Icelandic female council managers. The book draws from both comparative resources and a single case study on Iceland and provides comprehensive information on the recruitment of women into the position of council manager from the perspective of local government studies, organizational studies and gender studies. The book will help scholars, students and practitioners interested in exploring the subtle hindrances facing women’s advancement into top-echelon positions in organizations.