This book presents an overview of communicative language teaching and testing in Central and Eastern European countries. It focuses on the impact of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (CEFR) and its model of language use. The author provides a user-friendly introduction to the process of linking local language examinations to the common reference levels of language proficiency in order to encourage local examination providers to assure quality in high-stakes testing. In response to different approaches in language examination development, the book includes some practical samples as well as practical advice on how to improve the effectiveness of the examinations developed and implemented in local contexts.
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Practicing Equality and Social Justice in Youth and Community Work
Annette Coburn and Sinéad Gormally
Communities for Social Change: Practicing Equality and Social Justice in Youth and Community Work examines core ideas of social justice and equality that underpin community and youth work. It informs understanding of a range of community concepts and practices that are used to identify practical skills and characteristics that can help to promote equality by challenging injustice. Working with people in different types of community can bring the kind of social change that makes a real and lasting difference. Although justice is a contested notion, Annette Coburn and Sinéad Gormally assert that it is closely interlinked with human rights and equality. A critical examination of contemporary literature draws on educational, sociological, and psychological perspectives, to set community practices within a context for learning that is conversational, critical and informal. Social justice is about identifying and seeking to address structural disadvantage, discrimination, and inequality. The authors assert that by refocusing on process, participation and collective rights, it is possible to create and sustain social justice. Transformative research paradigms help to produce findings that inspire and underpin political social action, and an analysis of practice based examples supports the promotion of increased critical consciousness. This makes Communities for Social Change a ‘must read’ for anyone studying or teaching community youth work or who is working in communities or with individuals who experience oppression or inequality. If you are committed to teaching and learning about theory and practice that promotes social change for equality and social justice, you will not be disappointed!
Mariacruz Castro Ricalde, Mauricio Díaz Calderón and James Ramey
"It was a great night for Mexico, as usual." Donald Trump's words about Alejandro González Iñárritu on Oscars’ night 2014 were a preview of his now-notorious attitude toward Mexicans: "He´s walking away with all the gold? Was it that good? I don´t hear that. It was certainly a big night for them." Although the future president’s comments were offensive, for scholars interested in transnational film and literature, his words were themselves pure gold. For they raise questions about "nation" as a category of representation. When we invoke "Mexican cinema," for example, we imply that some kind of "national cinema" exists – but what is a national cinema? Is the cinema made in the US a national cinema in the same way as that of Mexico’s? And is a film made by a foreigner in Mexico part of Mexican cinema? What does it mean for a film or a literary work to cross a border? And are borders to be defined in geographical terms only, or can they also be cast in terms of gender, sexual orientation, race, or language itself? This book, in short, reflects on the implications of the term "transnational" in relation to film and literature conceived – in any way, shape, or form – as "Mexican."
Performance, Culture and Social Change in Southall
The Recovery of Iconographic Theology and Religious Experience from 1850 to 2000
Stewart A. Dippel
Phonological and Processing Impairment in Developmental Dyslexia
Beyond the well-known reading and spelling difficulties, dyslexic individuals exhibit marked phonological disorders, poor lexical retrieval and problems in the comprehension and production of grammatical structures that are particularly expensive in terms of processing costs. To account for these difficulties, the author presents an original hypothesis, proposing that dyslexia is related to a working memory inefficiency, affecting in particular the subject’s phonological skills and executive functions. The results of four experimental protocols, assessing dyslexic children’s working memory and their ability to interpret scalar implicatures, negative sentences and pronominal expressions, are presented and discussed in this volume. Consistent with the hypothesis outlined in this book, the results of the four studies show that dyslexics underperformed in comparison to age-matched controls and even to younger children in tasks requiring good phonological and processing abilities.