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Defining Literacy Standards

Essays on Assessment, Inclusion, Pedagogy and Civic Engagement

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Edited by Ronald A. Sudol and Alice S. Horning

As individual institutions of education at all levels respond to the call for greater accountability and assessment, those who teach literacy face the challenging task of choosing what to measure and how to measure it. Both defining literacy clearly and tying that definition to strategies for assessment are two of many challenges faced by educators, theorists, and members of the public who assume responsibility for assessing literacy as well as developing and improving literacy programs. In a pluralistic and democratic society sensitive to multicultural variation, we need to find our way between the competing needs for inclusiveness and for clear and useful standards. Multiple definitions of literacy raise the issue of whether there can be a standard or set of standards and if so, what they are in an environment of multiple literacies. Indeed, the downside of the defeat of older monolithic notions of literacy is the undermining or at least the questioning of well-established methods of literacy assessment. To some extent, the older methods of assessment have been revised in the light of more expansive definitions of literacy. But will this kind of revision be enough? How are the criteria for judgment to be known and applied? Thus, this volume addresses the problems of assessing literacy development in the context of multiple and inclusive definitions. Each section consists of chapters that deal with the issue of definitions per se, with standards in postsecondary settings, with the K-12 situation, and with alternative, non-school environments where literacy is critical to human functioning in a democratic society.

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The Communication Strategy Handbook

A Toolkit for Creating a Winning Strategy

Betteke van Ruler and Frank Körver

Strategic development is one of the most daunting challenges that faces any professional, no matter the field. After all, stakes are high. Developing effective strategies can put you on the path to becoming a trusted advisor and a valued employee. The Communication Strategy Framework introduced in this handbook has been designed to help professionals make targeted choices toward strategic communication. Taking an iterative approach and continually reflecting on whether your choices remain congruent enables you to continually adapt to changing circumstances while staying in command. Linear planning models are ineffective. Quick strategy development can revolutionize the communication function and strengthen the relationship amongst members of a professional team. Linking communication and business strategy is the number one challenge for today’s communication practitioners.

Many CEOs still view the communication department as no more than as a tactical entity providing outreach but little else. It is time to fundamentally rethink how strategic communication is developed and start using modern tools to do this. The Communication Strategy Framework facilitates the communication professional to forcefully and efficiently make the right choices. It compels individuals to think about how communication can contribute to achieving the organization or client’s goals. As a result, it provides a clear picture of your communication strategy in one page by putting superfluous details aside and concentrating on the essentials. The Communication Strategy Framework has proven to be an instant eye-opener for clients and other stakeholders. A best-seller amongst professionals in the Netherlands, it is available for the first time in English. This step-by-step guide to creating strategic communication will help communicators of all types—from professionals and clients to students and teachers!

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Poaching Politics

Online Communication during the 2016 US Presidential Election

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Paul Booth, Amber Davisson, Aaron Hess and Ashley Hinck

The 2016 US election was ugly, divisive, maddening, and influential. In this provocative new book, Paul Booth, Amber Davisson, Aaron Hess, and Ashley Hinck explore the effect that everyday people had on the political process. From viewing candidates as celebrities, to finding fan communities within the political spectrum, to joining others online in spreading (mis)information, the true influence in 2016 was the online participant.

Poaching Politics brings together research and scholars from media studies, political communication, and rhetoric to provide an interdisciplinary perspective on the role of participatory cultures in shaping the 2016 US presidential election. Poaching Politics heralds a new way of creating and understanding shifts in the nature of political communication in the digital age.

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Muslim Women and White Femininity

Reenactment and Resistance

Haneen Shafeeq Ghabra

Muslim Women and White Femininity: Reenactment and Resistance is a much-needed book in a time when Muslim women are speaking out but also embodying White femininity. This book focuses on how Whiteness travels through Muslim women’s bodies, who in turn reenact or resist White womanhood, by examining three relevant archetypes: the Oppressed, the Advocate, and the Humanitarian Leader. The author aims to demonstrate the necessity of archetypal criticism as a method that can teach the reader or student how to deconstruct dominant discourses in the media. This book aims to address intercultural, gender, intersectional and critical communication courses but is also suited for those in the general public who wish to understand the deceptive nature of the media. Thus, at a time where Muslim women are being used as media objects by Western media, this book is crucial in analyzing how readers can begin to uncover dominant ideologies that are carried through and by Muslim women.

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Edited by Benedetta Brevini and Justin Lewis

It is now more than a quarter of a century since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published their first comprehensive report on the dangers posed by anthropogenic global warming. Over the last twenty-five years the weight of evidence about the causes and consequences of climate change has become compelling. The solutions are fairly simple—we must switch to more sustainable and efficient forms of energy production. And yet they remain elusive—globally we produce significantly more greenhouse gases now than we did back in 1990. The sad truth is that this inaction has made climate change inevitable—the only question that remains is whether we can prevent it spiralling out of control.

How do we explain this colossal global failure? The problem is political rather than scientific: we know the risks and we know how to address them, but we lack the political will to do so. The media are pivotal in this equation: they have the power to set the public and the political agenda. Climate Change and the Media, Volume 2 gathers contributions from a range of international scholars to explore the media’s role in our understanding of the problem and our willingness to take action. Combined, these chapters explain how and why media coverage has, to date, fallen short in communicating both the science and the politics of climate change. They also offer guidance about how the media might shift from being the problem to becoming part of the solution.

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Artisanat et design

Un dessein indien ?

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Edited by Philippe Bouquillion, Julie Peghini and Catherine Servan Schreiber

Très renommés, et commercialisés à l’échelle internationale, le design et l’artisanat indiens s’affirment avec succès. Les productions artisanales attirent chaque année de milliers de touristes. Le Made in India, avec ses couleurs acidulées et ses formes attractives, investit les foyers comme les industries culturelles. Les designers indiens, qu’ils soient formés au National Institute of Design (NID) ou à New York, travaillent dans le monde entier. Pourtant, peu de recherches ont été conduites sur ce sujet. Cet ouvrage se propose d’apporter des pistes de réflexion sur les relations entre le design et l’artisanat et la dynamique qu’elles suscitent. Il est le fruit de la collaboration de trois équipes : l’équipe « Industries culturelles indiennes. Scènes artistiques et littéraires » r du CEIAS (CNRS EHESS), le CEMTI et le LabSIC. Le groupe de recherche ainsi formé s’inscrit à la croisée de l’anthropologie et des sciences de l’information et de la communication.

Notre démarche s’est appuyée sur des enquêtes de terrain et des entretiens avec des artisans et des designers, ces derniers venant tant du design industriel que du design à ambition artistique. De même, des experts et personnalités du monde du design et des acteurs du design étrangers intervenant en contexte indien ont été rencontrés. L’ouvrage inclut également, notamment grâce à un travail commun avec la revue Take On Art, les analyses de chercheurs indiens et d’acteurs du domaine. Les artisans présentés dans l’ouvrage relèvent d’une grande pluralité de disciplines, se situent en zones rurales et urbaines dans divers états de l’Inde et proviennent de cadres sociaux et religieux différents. La perspective artistique, – et tout spécialement l’art contemporain –, est aussi représentée, en particulier dans ses manifestations urbaines.

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Literacy Then and Now

A Study of Modern and Contemporary Literacy Practices

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Alice S. Horning

In Contemporary times, the fundamental nature of literacy remains unchanged; it is for this reason that the lessons of 1880 to 1930 are still quite relevant. The opening chapter sets the parameters by defining the key terms, Modernism, Literacy and Transition. The second chapter offers a selective look at some religious organizations’ support for literacy, focusing on the main religious groups in the United States in the Modern period: Christianity, Judaism and Islam, presenting focused literacy case studies, including Chautauqua among Protestants, the Reform movement among Jews, and the leadership of key writers and journalists among the Muslims, and demonstrating their sponsorship of literacy. NGOs’ contributions to literacy, discussed in the third chapter, show the importance of reading groups, literary societies, settlement houses, unions and corporations to literacy development. The government, too, supported literacy activities, through various programs like the Moonlight Schools in Kentucky and admittedly with mixed results, the boarding schools for Native Americans, as well as in libraries. Finally, there are the formal educational programs for literacy in K-12 schools as well as colleges and universities. The lessons arising from this review suggest, first, that the psycholinguistic character of reading remains consistent over time, place and delivery system; while sponsors play a key role, self-motivation is a driving force in literacy development; finally, although literacy is in an on-going state of transition, the need for critical literacy continues to be an urgent, widespread and essential goal.

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International Public Relations

Practices and Approaches

Edited by Mehmet Umut Tuncer

Today, globalisation has reached its peak not only due to economic integration, but also by the multiplier effect stemmed from digital communication technologies. The concept of «global village», mentioned nearly half a century ago by Marshall McLuhan, confronts us as actual reality. Of course, this approach creates radical impact on all management practices.

Public relations is one of the management instruments which is affected most by the emergent change in approach within this context. In this volume, the authors define public relations through an international perspective within the context of both theory and practice. Consisting of fifteen sections, the book describes what intra- and extra-organisational public relation theories and practices correspond to in the present day.

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Media and Digital Modernism

New Communication Environments

Edited by Sefer Kalaman and Bilal Süslü

New technologies have brought about radical changes in almost all areas of life. The best concept to describe this period is «digimodernism» in which there occur many transformations, from shopping to information, socialization to banking, education to communication. People, who become increasingly dependent on technology, computer and internet, are forced to attach themselves to the new social structure in a society that changes in parallel with digitalization. The Digimodern period has substantially affected the media as almost every point of life and caused great transformations. At this point, the main theme of the book is to reveal the structure of the media in the digital period.

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Edited by Arthur S. Hayes

Franklin Delano Roosevelt used radio fireside chats to connect with millions of ordinary Americans. The highly articulate and telegenic John F. Kennedy was dubbed the first TV president. Ronald Reagan, the so-called Great Communicator, had a conversational way of speaking to the common man. Bill Clinton left his mark on media industries by championing and signing the landmark Telecommunications Act of 1996 into law. Barack Obama was the first social media presidential campaigner and president. And now there is President Donald J. Trump.

Because so much of what has made Donald Trump’s candidacy and presidency unconventional has been about communication—how he has used Twitter to convey his political messages and how the news media and voters have interpreted and responded to his public words and persona—21 communication and media scholars examine the Trump phenomenon in Communication in the Age of Trump. This collection of essays and studies, suitable for communication and political science students and scholars, covers the 2016 presidential campaign and the first year of the Trump presidency.