Children Studying in a Wrong Language

Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School- Twenty Years After the Collapse of the Soviet Union

by Aaro Toomela (Volume editor) Eve Kikas (Volume editor)
©2012 Edited Collection 243 Pages


The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social structures that was fundamentally affected by Soviet power. Due to unique historical, demographic, and cultural reasons, the experiences of other countries providing education to non-native speaking students cannot be adopted in Estonia without first studying the situation thoroughly. The Estonian Ministry of Education and Research launched the longitudinal study Non-Estonian Child in an Estonian-Language School, with the aim to understand how Estonian schools cope with an increasing number of non-Estonians studying in a second language. This book brings together some results of that study.


ISBN (Hardcover)
Publication date
2012 (September)
educational psychology submersion education multicultural education post-Soviet countries cognitive abilities
Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wien, 2012. XII, 243 pp.

Biographical notes

Aaro Toomela (Volume editor) Eve Kikas (Volume editor)

Aaro Toomela is Professor of Cultural Psychology and Neuropsychology at Tallinn University (Estonia). His research interests cover the main fields of psychology as well as philosophy, history, and the methodology of psychology. He has authored numerous scientific papers, and is a member of the editorial boards of several journals (including Culture and Psychology and Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science). Eve Kikas is Professor of School Psychology at Tallinn University (Estonia). She is very engaged in the development of school psychological services and research in Estonia. Her most recent studies have been related to teaching methods, parental beliefs and practices, and to children’s motivational and social development. She is a member of the editorial board of the journal School Psychology Quarterly.


Title: Children Studying in a Wrong Language