The Business of Counterterrorism
Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
Table Of Contents
- About the authors
- About the book
- Advance Praise for The Business of Counterterrorism
- This eBook can be cited
- Foreword by ADM James Loy (USCG, Ret.)
- List of Abbreviations
- 1: Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security: Past and Present
- I. The Emergence of Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Critical Infrastructure Protection
- Information Sharing
- Port Security
- Emergency Management
- II. Benefits of Public-Private Partnerships for Homeland Security
- Resource Utilization
- Building Trust, Increasing Effectiveness
- Technological Innovation
- III. Potential Shortcomings of Public-Private Partnerships
- The Limits of Public-Private Partnerships
- Unmet Expectations and Cost Overruns
- Appearance Versus Reality of Cooperation
- IV. Ongoing Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships
- Evolving Governance and Responsibility
- Management and Accountability.
- Legal and Ethical Challenges.
- Increasing Need for Transparency.
- Incentivizing Private Sector Participation
- Politics, Budgets, and Long-Term Planning
- V. Conclusions
- 2: Public-Private Partnerships in Critical Infrastructure Protection
- I. The Evolution of Critical Infrastructure Protection
- The Aftermath of 9/11
- From Protection to Resilience: Engaging the Private Sector
- II. Challenges That Threaten the Effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships
- Obstacles to Cross-Sector Coordination
- Gaps in Information Sharing
- Shortfalls in Private Sector Engagement in Critical Infrastructure Protection
- The Cyber Problem
- III. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships in Critical Infrastructure Protection
- IV. Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
- 3: Public-Private Partnerships in Cyberterrorism, Cybercrime, and Cyberespionage
- I. Distinguishing Among Cyberterrorism, Cyberespionage, and Cybercrime
- II. Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Cybersecurity
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships to Mitigate Cyberterrorism
- Surveillance in Cyberterrorism.
- Elicitation in Cyberterrorism.
- Tests of Security in Cyberterrorism
- Acquiring Supplies for Cyberterrorism.
- Suspicious Persons in Cyberterrorism.
- Trial Runs in Cyberterrorism.
- Deploying Assets in Cyberterrorism.
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships to Mitigate Cyberespionage
- Spotting and Assessing an Intelligence Asset in Cyberspace.
- Developing and “Recruiting” an Intelligence Asset in Cyberspace.
- Asset Handling in Cyberspace.
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships to Mitigate Cybercrime
- The Prelude to a Cybercrime.
- The Incident: A Cybercrime-in-Progress.
- The Aftermath of a Cybercrime.
- III. Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Cybersecurity
- Developing a Legal Framework for Cybersecurity
- Jurisdictional Challenges in Cybersecurity
- Unmet Expectations and Cost Overruns in Cybersecurity
- Sharing Sensitive Information for Cybersecurity
- Integrating Public-Private Sector Cybersecurity Operations
- Loss of Information and Intentional Leaks
- Developing Incentives for the Private Sector
- Appearance Versus Reality
- IV. Future Implications of Public-Private Partnerships in Cybersecurity
- General Expansion of Public-Private Partnerships in Cybersecurity
- Growth of Public-Private Partnerships in Hardware and Software Design
- Public-Private Partnerships for Cybersecurity in Financial Institutions
- More Private Sector Leaks of Government Information
- Cross-Sector Personnel Exchanges
- V. Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
- 4: Public-Private Partnerships and Information Sharing
- I. Why Information Sharing Is Necessary for Homeland Security
- II. Current Challenges with Information Sharing for Homeland Security
- Lack of Trust between the Public and Private Sectors
- Information Overload
- Low-Quality Information
- Low-Quality Information in Law Enforcement.
- Low-Quality Information in Emergency Management.
- Low-Quality Information in Critical Infrastructure Protection.
- Low-Quality Information in Cybersecurity
- III. Public-Private Partnership Solutions for Information Sharing in Homeland Security
- Public-Private Partnerships Can Help Build Trust
- Public-Private Partnerships Can Help to Manage the Information Deluge
- Public-Private Partnerships Can Improve Information Quality
- IV. Recommendations for Future Information Sharing
- 5: Integrating Public-Private Capabilities at U.S. Ports of Entry
- I. Public-Private Partnerships in Maritime Port Security
- Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Maritime Port Security
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Port Security
- II. Public-Private Partnerships in Airport Security
- Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Airport Security
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Airport Security
- III. Public-Private Partnerships in Border Security
- Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Border Security
- Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Border Security
- IV. Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
- 6: Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Disaster Recovery
- I. Defining and Clarifying Public-Private Partnerships in Emergency Management
- Strategic Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Re-Shaping Emergency Management
- Operational Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Re-Shaping Emergency Management
- Tactical Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Re-Shaping Emergency Management
- How Public-Private Partnerships Strengthen Community Resilience
- II. Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Emergency Management
- Defining Expectations Can Increase the Value of Public-Private Partnerships in Emergency Management
- Preserving and Enhancing Partnerships Formed During Emergencies Can Increase Resilience
- Potential Marketing Opportunities for Firms
- Opportunities for Businesses to Influence Governmental Policy
- III. Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Emergency Management
- Ill-Defined Expectations, Free-Riders, and Prisoners’ Dilemmas
- Problems with Accountability
- The Politics of Public-Private Partnerships for Emergency Management
- The “Hollowing Out” Effect
- IV. The Road Ahead
- V. Conclusions
- Conclusion—Taking Care of Business: The Future of Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- I. The Changing Landscape of Homeland Security
- Strategic Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Operational Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Tactical Effects of Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Achieving Resilience through Public-Private Partnerships
- II. Opportunities for Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Public-Private Partnerships Improve Efficiency
- Flexible Hiring
- Resource Utilization
- Building Trust
- III. Challenges for Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Regulation and Management Challenges
- Politics, Budgets, and Long-Term Planning
- Avoiding the “Hollowing-Out” Effect
- Avoiding “War Profiteering”
- The Potential Failure of Public-Private Partnerships
- IV. Toward a Theory of Public-Private Partnerships for Homeland Security
- V. Policy Recommendations to Improve Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security
- Government Documents, Primary Sources
- News Sources
- Journals, Books, Internet Resources
| ix →
When I encountered audiences in the first year or so after the tragedy of September 11th, 2001, the question I was most often asked was: “When are we going to get back to ‘normal’?” By “normal,” the questioner was referring to the life we knew before 9/11. The answer to the question was self-evident: NEVER! Instead, there was a “new normal,” and our challenge was first to understand it and then to do the learning necessary to secure our homeland in the face of this “new normal.”
Long before PPP was a recognizable acronym for public-private partnerships, it became clear to many leaders in the stand-up process of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that we could accomplish more—and do so more swiftly, efficiently, and effectively—if we reached out to the private sector for assistance. Authors Nathan Busch and Austen Givens have now inventoried and documented for the first time many of the elements that comprise one of the key pathways to what I believe will be a critical tool in securing our homeland.
Over this first decade in the “new normal” we have learned many lessons. Busch and Givens document many of them—especially those learned in the aftermath of natural catastrophes such as Hurricane Katrina or man-made failures such as the Strategic Border Initiative (SBInet). Dozens of commissions and lessons learned studies have helped to shape our understanding of and design efforts toward solving the challenges of the “new normal.”
One of these lessons learned and a harbinger of things to come is that PPPs have evolved and will continue to evolve in the years ahead. For example, when we were challenged to stand up the new ← ix | x → Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Congress outlined 36 specific steps to be taken with hard deadlines provided for each step. I am convinced that we would still be working on steps #8 or #9 of this process if I had not reached out to industry. Dozens of companies, including large system integrators, airlines, trade associations, and leading edge research and development firms leaned forward and made priceless contributions in standing up the TSA. We met every deadline. Busch and Givens provide the framework for not only recognizing the first decade’s collaboration but the value of sustaining that collaboration into the future.
We are now attempting to learn and understand how to lead and manage in a dynamic environment. We must be focused on producing the professionals who will work in and lead the homeland security enterprise for the next several decades. Those professionals must be agile and adaptable. But most importantly, they must be skilled collaborators. Successful local government officials must be able to coordinate their efforts with state, federal and international partners. These players will recognize that in order to be successful agents of change, they will have to be able to examine the structure, processes, capacity for idea vetting, and skill levels of the people present in all elements of the homeland security enterprise. Such a review will determine what needs to be done for those elements to remain a part of the solution for the challenges of the “new normal.” I am convinced that PPPs will be a huge part of such reviews.
That framework and its reasoning are presented here for the reader. This book is a great start down the path of both our requirement to understand the challenges of this “new normal” and our commitment to secure our country. Solutions to many of our problems will be found when government answers the many “what” questions that are now in front of us. They should do so with private stakeholders at the table. Then they should facilitate ← x | xi → leading industry voices to answer the “how” questions. That is the essence of The Business of Counterterrorism: Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland Security: what do we need to do, and how are we going to do it?
For those of us who were in the trenches in the beginning, I wish we would have had this common sense book to read. It would have helped to shape our thinking then, and it can absolutely do so now.
Admiral James Milton Loy (USCG, Ret.)
Acting Secretary, Department of Homeland Security, 2005
Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security, 2003–05
Administrator, TSA, 2002–03
Commandant, United States Coast Guard, 1998–2002
| xiii →
This book is an outgrowth of the Center for American Studies at Christopher Newport University’s Symposium on Homeland Security: Enhancing Public-Private Partnerships and Coordination, which took place July 19–20, 2012.
This symposium featured a remarkable group of government and business leaders in homeland security, including Thad Allen, former Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard and National Incident Commander for the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill response; Bill Bratton, former commissioner of the New York Police Department; Bob Stephan, executive vice president at CRA, Inc. and former Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security for Infrastructure Protection; Thomas S. Winkowski, acting Deputy Administrator for U.S. Customs and Border Protection; and Terrie Suit, Secretary of Veterans Affairs and Homeland Security for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
We gratefully acknowledge these leaders’ contributions to the symposium, as well as the symposium sponsors: the Hampton Roads Chapter of the National Defense Industrial Association (NDIA), Continuity First, Verizon Wireless, ABM, Lockheed Martin, ITA International, Bosch Global Services, Spectrum, and Mymic.
Outside of the symposium, we sought out many experts to provide us with background information on how government-business partnerships are transforming homeland security today. We especially thank Ami Abou-bakr, Mike Landefeld, Jim Loy, Sue Lynch, Elizabeth Mayo, Mark Milicich, Benjamin Muncy, Bob Newman, and Paul Byron Pattak for their time and expertise.
For their assistance with the cover design, we would like to thank Michael John and especially Amy Mayberry. For help with the references and bibliography, our thanks go to Ben Coffman and ← xiii | xiv → Kelsey Nichols. We also thank Rebecca Francescatti for her services on indexing.
Finally, we thank our wives, Liz and Rachel, as well as our families and friends, whose love and encouragement made this book possible.
| xv →
| 1 →
I want to just say this about the private sector. In my mind, the government is incapable of responding to its maximum ability without private sector support.
—Hon. Tom Ridge, Former Secretary, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, August 3, 2011
- XVIII, 342
- ISBN (PDF)
- ISBN (ePUB)
- ISBN (MOBI)
- ISBN (Hardcover)
- ISBN (Softcover)
- Publication date
- 2014 (November)
- cybersecurity information sharing disaster recovery infrastructure protection
- New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Frankfurt am Main, Oxford, Wien, 2014. 342 pp.