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Cross, Crown & Community

Religion, Government and Culture in Early Modern England 1400-1800

David J. B. Trim and Peter J. Balderstone

The values and institutions of the Christian Church remained massively dominant in early modern English society and culture, but its theology, liturgy and unity were increasingly disputed. The period was overall one of institutional conformity and individual diversity: the centrality of Christian religion was universally acknowledged; yet the nature of religion and of religious observance in England changed dramatically during the Reformation, Renaissance, and Restoration.
Further, because English culture was still biblical and English society was still religious, the state involved itself in ecclesiastical matters to an extraordinary extent. Successive political and ecclesiastical administrations were committed to helping each other, but their attempts to mould religious beliefs and customs were effectively attempts to modify English culture. Church and state were complementary, yet because they were ultimately distinct estates, they could work only, at best, uneasily in partnership with each other.
Cultural output is thus an ideal lens for examining this period of tension in the church, state and society of England. The case studies contained in this volume examine the intersection of politics, religion and society over the entire early modern period, through distinct examples of cultural texts produced and cultural practices followed.
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Richard J. Bonney and David J.B. Trim

Europe is increasingly multi-ethnic and multi-faith, as well as multi-cultural. Western democracies now comprise a plurality of fundamental opinions and inherited cultures; it is not clear how (or if!) they can be related to each other without involving either oppression or anarchy. This debate requires historical understanding and a contemporary grasp of the points at issue amongst different cultures.
By virtue of their proximity and frequent historical interaction, Britain and France lend themselves to comparative study. The studies in this volume collectively demonstrate that the affairs of religious minorities in these two countries were not only of concern to themselves and their national established churches. Rather, over a long-term period, they had a sustained impact on many other issues.
All chapters illustrate the problematic shift from a persecutory to a pluralistic mentality.
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Persecution and Pluralism

Calvinists and Religious Minorities in Early Modern Europe 1550-1700

Richard J. Bonney and David J.B. Trim

With one exception, the papers collected here were first presented at a conference sponsored by the British Academy held at Newbold College, Berkshire, in 1999. This volume provides a historical perspective to the emerging literature on pluralism. A range of experts examine how Calvinists in early modern France, England, Hungary and the Netherlands related to members of other faith communities and to society in general. The essays explore the importance of Calvinists’ separateness and potent sense of identity. To what extent did this enable them to survive persecution? Did it at times actually induce repression? Where Calvinists held political power, why did they often turn from persecuted into persecutors? How did they relate to (Ana)Baptists, Quakers and Catholics, for example? The conventional wisdom that toleration (and, in consequence, pluralism) resulted from a waning in religious zeal is queried and alternative explanations considered. Finally, the concept of ‘pluralism’ itself is investigated.
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Parochialism, Pluralism, and Contextualization

Challenges to Adventist Mission in Europe (19 th -21 st Centuries)

David J. B. Trim and Daniel Heinz

The transplantation of Adventism to Europe presented the young American-based denomination with great challenges. Often referred to as an «American sect», the foreignness of Adventism in Europe has been one of the greatest single hindrances to the accomplishment of its mission. In addition to addressing historical questions regarding evangelization efforts, the various essays also give insight into contemporary aspects of Adventist outreach in Europe. This book ultimately aspires to awaken the reader’s understanding and interest for the complexity and diversity of the European Adventist existence. The articles do not arrive at any final conclusive results; rather they are to be seen as contributions to the discussion in the current missiological and interconfessional debate.