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Napoleon's Other War

Bandits, Rebels and their Pursuers in the Age of Revolutions

Michael Broers

The wars of Napoleon are among the best-known and most exciting episodes in world history. Less well known is the uproar the armies stirred up in their path, and even more, the chaos they left in their wake. The 'knock-on effect' of Napoleon's sweep across Europe went further than is often remembered: his invasion of Spain triggered the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America, and his meddling in the Balkans destabilised the Ottomans. Many places had been riven with banditry and popular tumult from time immemorial, characteristics which worsened in the havoc wrought by the wars. Other areas had known relative calm before the arrival of the French in 1792, but even the most pacific societies were disrupted by these conflagrations.

Behind the battle fronts raged other conflicts, 'little wars' - the guerrilla (the term was born in these years) - and bigger ones, where whole provinces rose up in arms. Bandits often stood at the centre of these 'dirty wars' of ambushes, night raids, living hard in tough terrain, of plunder, rapine and early, violent death, which spread across the whole western world from Constantinople to Chile. Everywhere, they threw up unlikely characters - ordinary men who emerged as leaders, bandits who became presidents, priests who became warriors, lawyers who became murdering criminals. In studying these varying fortunes, Michael Broers provides an insight into a lost world of peasant life, a world Napoleon did so much to sweep away.

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Napoleon's Other War

Bandits, Rebels and their Pursuers in the Age of Revolutions

Michael Broers

The wars of Napoleon are among the best-known and most exciting episodes in world history. Less well known is the uproar the armies stirred up in their path, and even more, the chaos they left in their wake. The «knock-on effect» of Napoleon’s sweep across Europe went further than is often remembered: his invasion of Spain triggered the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America, and his meddling in the Balkans destabilised the Ottomans. Many places had been riven with banditry and popular tumult from time immemorial, characteristics which worsened in the havoc wrought by the wars. Other areas had known relative calm before the arrival of the French in 1792, but even the most pacific societies were disrupted by these conflagrations. Behind the battle fronts raged other conflicts, «little wars» – the guerrilla (the term was born in these years) – and bigger ones, where whole provinces rose up in arms. Bandits often stood at the centre of these «dirty wars» of ambushes, night raids, living hard in tough terrain, of plunder, rapine and early, violent death, which spread across the whole western world from Constantinople to Chile. Everywhere, they threw up unlikely characters – ordinary men who emerged as leaders, bandits who became presidents, priests who became warriors, lawyers who became murdering criminals. In studying these varying fortunes, Michael Broers provides an insight into a lost world of peasant life, a world Napoleon did so much to sweep away.

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Der kommunale Finanzausgleich in Hessen

Historische Darstellung und ökonomische Analyse unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Schlüsselzuweisungen

Series:

Michael Broer

In Deutschland sind die Bundesländer nach Art. 106 Abs. 7 GG verpflichtet, ihre Gemeinden und Gemeindeverbände im Rahmen eines kommunalen Finanzausgleichs an den eigenen Steuereinnahmen zu beteiligen. Da im Grundgesetz und den jeweiligen Landesverfassungen ausschließlich allgemeine Ausführungen zu diesem Themenkomplex zu finden sind, kommt es häufig zum Verteilungsstreit zwischen Land und Kommunen einerseits und Kommunen andererseits. Der Verfasser beschreibt und analysiert die Bestimmungen des hessischen kommunalen Finanzausgleichs bezüglich ihrer ökonomischen Zielführung und vergleicht diese mit Regelungen anderer Bundesländer. Anschließend legt er eigene Reformvorschläge dar, mit deren Hilfe die angesprochenen Probleme gelöst werden können.
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Die nuklearen Kurzstreckenwaffen in Europa

Eine Analyse des deutsch-amerikanischen Streits über die Einbeziehung der SRINF in den INF-Vertrag und der SNF-Kontroverse

Michael Broer

Der deutsch-amerikanische Streit um die Modernisierung der Lance und um die Aufnahme von Verhandlungen über nukleare Kurzstreckenwaffen hat das atlantische Bündnis vor dem Jubiläumsgipfel im Mai 1989 in eine seiner schwersten Krisen gestürzt und den Bestand der Bonner Koalition akut gefährdet. Der Autor analysiert die Interessen der Akteure und die Entscheidungsprozesse in der NATO und in der Bundesregierung zur Behandlung der nuklearen Kurzstreckenwaffen im INF-Vertrag und zur Lösung des Bündnisstreits. In der Studie wird gezeigt, welche große politische Bedeutung der Bündnisstreit über die Sachfrage hinaus hatte: An der Frage der Modernisierung der Lance wurde zwischen Kohl und Genscher sowie zwischen der Bundesrepublik und den USA erbittert um die richtige Politik gegenüber Gorbatschow gerungen. Präsident Bush löste durch eine mutige Abrüstungsinitiative den Streit auf und schwenkte weitgehend auf den Standpunkt Genschers ein. Bush war vom Frühjahr 1989 an bereit, entschlossener als bisher, die ostpolitischen Gestaltungschancen des beginnenden Umbruchs in Europa wahrzunehmen.