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Confronting the Nazi War on Christianity

The "Kulturkampf Newsletters, 1936-1939- The Definitive English-Language Edition of the "Kulturkampf Newsletters- Edited and translated by Richard Bonney

Richard J. Bonney

Contemporaries and historians have found it difficult to interpret the ambiguous relationship between National Socialism and Christianity. Both the Catholic and Protestant Churches tended to agree with National Socialists in their authoritarianism, their attacks on socialism and communism, and their campaign against the Versailles Treaty; but the doctrinal position of the Churches could not be reconciled with the principle of racism, a foreign policy of unlimited aggressive warfare, or a domestic agenda involving the complete subservience of Church to State. Important sections of the Nazi Party sought the complete extirpation of Christianity and its substitution by a purely racial religion, but considerations of expediency made it impossible for the National Socialist leadership to adopt this radical anti-Christian stance as official policy.
The Kulturkampf Newsletters, which have not appeared in English since the 1930s, were produced by German Catholic exiles in France. They scrupulously document the tensions between various strands of Nazi policy, and the nature of the policy eventually adopted: this was to reduce the Churches’ influence in all areas of public life through the use of every available means, yet without provoking the difficulties – diplomatic as well as domestic – which an openly declared war of extermination might have caused.
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False Prophets

The ‘Clash of Civilizations’ and the Global War on Terror

Richard J. Bonney

After 9/11 the US response to Al-Qaeda – the Global War on Terror – was heavily influenced by the ‘clash of civilizations’ theory. First introduced by Bernard Lewis in 1993 in an article entitled ‘The Roots of Muslim Rage’, this theory was taken up by Samuel Huntington in his famous book The Clash of Civilizations: Remaking of World Order in 1996. After the end of the Cold War global conflict will not be economic or ideological but cultural and religious. ‘The clash of civilizations’, Huntington wrote, ‘will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future.’
This theory of global conflict proved enormously influential with neoconservatives in the US and heavily influenced contemporary US and UK policy. Richard Bonney’s controversial new book takes as its subject Huntington’s ‘clash of civilizations’ thesis and looks at the history of this so-called struggle of civilizations before it came to prominence in the twenty-first century. It identifies the twenty-first-century proponents of the thesis, such as Bernard Lewis and Daniel Pipes, their links to the Bush government, and their roles in exploiting this tradition of hostility between the West and Islam.
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Edited by Richard J. Bonney

This series addresses a new need. The constitution of many contemporary communities is radically diverse, and the need is to think anew about them. Through a mixture of edited collections and single-authored volumes, the series aims both to examine how radical diversity has arisen in the religious and political constitution of society and to analyse the implications for the future so as to help ensure the harmonious relations between communities and the best practice of government. Studies in the History of Religious and Political Pluralism will evaluate new trends and theories and make available the findings of empirical research which demonstrates the nature of the pluralistic world in which we live.
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Richard J. Bonney and David J.B. Trim

Europe is increasingly multi-ethnic and multi-faith, as well as multi-cultural. Western democracies now comprise a plurality of fundamental opinions and inherited cultures; it is not clear how (or if!) they can be related to each other without involving either oppression or anarchy. This debate requires historical understanding and a contemporary grasp of the points at issue amongst different cultures.
By virtue of their proximity and frequent historical interaction, Britain and France lend themselves to comparative study. The studies in this volume collectively demonstrate that the affairs of religious minorities in these two countries were not only of concern to themselves and their national established churches. Rather, over a long-term period, they had a sustained impact on many other issues.
All chapters illustrate the problematic shift from a persecutory to a pluralistic mentality.
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Persecution and Pluralism

Calvinists and Religious Minorities in Early Modern Europe 1550-1700

Richard J. Bonney and David J.B. Trim

With one exception, the papers collected here were first presented at a conference sponsored by the British Academy held at Newbold College, Berkshire, in 1999. This volume provides a historical perspective to the emerging literature on pluralism. A range of experts examine how Calvinists in early modern France, England, Hungary and the Netherlands related to members of other faith communities and to society in general. The essays explore the importance of Calvinists’ separateness and potent sense of identity. To what extent did this enable them to survive persecution? Did it at times actually induce repression? Where Calvinists held political power, why did they often turn from persecuted into persecutors? How did they relate to (Ana)Baptists, Quakers and Catholics, for example? The conventional wisdom that toleration (and, in consequence, pluralism) resulted from a waning in religious zeal is queried and alternative explanations considered. Finally, the concept of ‘pluralism’ itself is investigated.
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Warriors after War

Indian and Pakistani Retired Military Leaders Reflect on Relations between the Two Countries, Past, Present and Future

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Edited by Richard J. Bonney, Trividesh Singh Maini and Tahir Javed Malik

The inspiration for this book arose from the opening of the Srinagar-Muzaffarabad bus route on 7 April 2005, the first direct link between the two parts of divided Kashmir since 1947. The original impetus for change in the region arose not from politicians but from ex-military figures in Pakistan and India who had made a direct approach to the Institute for Multi-Track Diplomacy (IMTD), an independent, not-for-profit organization in the United States headed by former US Ambassador John W. McDonald. Most of the twenty-six retired military figures from India and Pakistan interviewed in this book accept that with both countries possessing nuclear weapons since 1998, choosing war to resolve outstanding disputes is no longer a sensible or realistic option. They differ greatly, however, in their analysis of the opportunities and pathways towards a sustainable peace in South Asia, with the greatest divergence of views on the Kashmir dispute. The material contained in the interviews is enhanced with biographical and other notes, along with a comprehensive introduction and conclusion. The detailed Appendices provide an analysis of religious-based extremist violence in Kashmir and Pakistan.