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important starting point for postcolonial studies, such as the most influential works of Homi Bhabha. 17 The “personal factor” may be even more important for all pre-modern and especial medieval forms of empires. I suggested rather focusing on analyzing the personal elements of empires than on political entities. I therefore re-introduced the concept “imperiale Ordnungen”, 18 which might be translated as “imperial communities”. This concept or approach enables us to analyze the continuous interdependence of imperial ideas or knowledge of empires and the contemporary

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express or from what the medieval audience expected to find. In other words, the manuscript space contains gaps through which the unconscious may be glimpsed. And secondly: … the manuscript matrix consists of gaps or interstices, in the form of interventions in the text made up of interpolations of visual and verbal insertions which may be conceived, in Jacques Lacan’s terms, as ‘pulsations of the unconscious’ by which the ‘subject ← 110 | 111 → reveals and conceals itself.’ If the effects of language in ordinary speech divide the subject, then the doubling of

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://www.bl.uk/manuscripts/FullDisplay.aspx?ref=Royal_MS_19_D_I (Gesehen am 14.01.2018). ← 379 | 380 → Unvollendete Weltkarte in einer Koblenzer Sammelhandschrift Koblenz, Stadtbibliothek, Rara 155, fol. 75r–86r, wohl nach 1276. Weltkarte aus spanischer Provenienz Dr. Jörn Günther Rare Books AG, Stalden OW (Schweiz), ohne Signatur, um 1425. b. Gedruckte Quellen Aethicus Ister, The Cosmography of Aethicus Ister. Edition, Translation, and Commentary , Michael W. Herren (Hg. und Übersetzer), (Publications of the Journal of Medieval Latin 8), Turnhout 2011. Agap, Prophetia filii Agap, Reinhold Röhricht (Hg.), in: Quinti

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Chapter12 ← 188 | 189 → Magdalena Charzyńska-Wójcik The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin The Anatomy of Two Medieval Translations of the Psalter * Abstract: The objective of this paper is to show linguistic, cultural and mise en page similarities between two translations of the Psalter which were geographically and chronologically sufficiently separated for the observed parallelisms not to reflect the idiom of the place and time. The first text, Richard Rolle’s Psalter translation, was executed in fourteenth-century England; the second, Walanty Wróbel

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rally society. This is the challenge that the more utopian approaches channeled, presented not as an escape route but rather as a real place in which to organize harmonious societies, 22 just as had been claimed for when new lands (and peoples) appeared. 23 Very significantly, the utopian roots in the late-medieval proposals 24 and in the Renaissance expressions 25 about ideal cities 26 , not by chance, but rather because the city was then envisaged as the social structure par excellence. 27 With full continuity, the 19th century’s challenges made it easier to

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dramatically shaped one’s visual experiences of artworks and, second, both gold and light were imbued with rich spiritual symbolism. Light was believed to have a corporeal form, but in its purest state, this form was invisible to one’s physical sense of sight, only revealing itself through divine intervention. 6 Any earthly manifestation of light was worthy of close observation and reverence by an early modern viewer because it served as a means of accessing the divine. Connections between divinity and light can be found throughout ancient and medieval philosophy, with

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the concept of revenge that medieval and early modern sources mention to indicate conflicts among the different kin groups, which animated the life of Italian cities. To what extent can we distinguish the term feud understood in the sense of a more general conflict that refers to enmity, which often lasted for long periods, from that of revenge, which seems to suggest a single act of retaliation or more simply a generic concept? The research conducted regarding the modern age 20 shows how the feud aristocratic system imploded when, due to the intervention of

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, the English conquest of the neighbouring island had for almost 800 уears been a constant element of the English ruling policy. “The year 1169 is regarded by most Irish people as the nation’s year of destiny ‘when the Normans came’” (Richter 2005). In fact, according to Expugnatio Hibernica (“Conquest of Ireland”, 1189) by Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales), one of the medieval chroniclers of the English intervention in Ireland, “those who intervened in Ireland from the 1160s onwards will be called English or Anglo-Welsh, not Normans, Anglo-Normans or Cambro

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-colored, perhaps blond, hair are called fair-haired ; 7 Werner Greub’s wooded Britain/Brittany (“in der waldigen Bertane”) recalls the metaphor for forests. 8 And to this list one might add two refusals to translate bloi : First, the decision not to translate the adjective as part of the toponym but instead to translate the entire expression, perhaps as Great Britain , which is what Rupert T. Pickens does in his translation of the Merlin Vulgation Continuation ; 9 or the decision to leave bloi untranslated, as I will do, following others, like the medieval English

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) decision making. It relates to an internalised regula- tory system and, as a result, guilt’s involvement with self-regulation also becomes a force of self-constitution. Just as guilt becomes inherent in the social structures of prohibition and patriarchal order asserted in Freud’s Totem and Taboo, Oedipal prohibition and primal guilt are combined in Lacan’s primary signifier, the Nom du Père.5 This primary signifier, the symbolic intervention of the father into the mother–child bond, simulta- neously positions the subject with relation to a symbolic order and marks