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the term with the US-American concept “people of color”). Those categorized as White had full citizen- ship and were the only group that enjoyed all civic rights. People who were classified as Asian/Indian or Coloured had limited access to legal rights, while the last group, those labeled Black, lost citizen status with the Bantu Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970. Ten so-called homelands were allocated to Black people as their “original homes” (comprising 13% of South Africa’s territory), forcing them to become citizens of these new and partially autonomous

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West” for years to come. By the end of the 1920s American films outpaced all other for- eign imports, cementing not only the cultural connection between cinema and Western expressions of “modernity” but also Hollywood (and by extension the United States itself) as the apotheosis of what it meant to be “modern.” Hollywood provided a model of modern rela- tionships between men and women and a sounding board for the emerging youth of Turkey to negotiate their new-found national iden- tity and generationally specific self image. Hinkle’s surveys and inter- views of

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Support Programmes Both the EU and US state agencies like the USAID, support democracy promotion in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, which includes Algeria. Promoting independent journalism has been considered a key institution of democratic political systems. Hence, both EU and USAID, as well as other European and American foundations, have sup- 16 Author interview with Abrous Outoudert, Communication Consultant, Algiers, 6th of November 2007. 17 Author interview, op. cit. 34 VICKEN CHETERIAN ported media development programmes in Algeria. For historic

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-great grandmother had the experience of slavery like hers, and I thought of the generations of Negro women who were my ancestry. Somewhere we were joined at the root” (133). The text depicts identity as a socially and culturally produced process through which Williams comes to see both her position as mixed-race and her need to identify with her father’s people critically. She comes to realise that the diasporic experience is precisely one that involves claiming a home where one lives and reworking aspects of dual heritage. As she puts it: “We may look to Africa or the

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-İktisadi Mülahazalar [Our World with Her Immensity-Economic Considerations], Istanbul, Turkey: Nil. Gülen-Inspired Hizmet in Europe 280 Books and Articles Abdo, Geneive 2006 Mecca and Main Street : Muslim life in America after 9/11, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. Abdullah, Zain 2009 ‘Sufi on Parade: The Performance of Black, African, and Muslim Identities,’ Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 77(2), 199-237. Abu-Lughod, Lila (ed.) 1998 Remaking Women: Feminism and Modernity in the Middle East, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Agai, Bekim 2003a ‘The

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values of women’s liberation movement, the objective of best-selling women’s fiction was coherence and readability. While experimental works such as Chris- tine Brooke-Rose’s Between (1968) were only read by a handful of critics in British academia, the outburst of feminist bestsellers in America cemented the connection of the 1970s with the novel of the first person. When the suspicion towards grand narratives, the demise of coherent subjectivity and the notion of the “Death of the Author” became prevalent modes of thinking in literary theo- ry, feminist writers

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Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Freire, Paulo. 1990. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum. –––––. 1994. Pedagogy of Hope. New York: Continuum. Gandara, Patricia. 1995. Over the Ivy Walls: The Educational Mobility of Low-Income Chicanos. Albany: State University of New York Press. Gardner, Howard. 1983. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books. Garrod, Andrew, and Colleen Larimore, eds. 1997. First Person, First Peoples: Native American College Graduates Tell Their Life Stories. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Gartman, David. 2013

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II and the Holocaust in particular, but also in the post- colonial literatures of cultural minorities within the US, in which trauma became a defining aspect of the ways in which these minorities rediscov- ered and reinterpreted their history and their cultural self-concept. The historical traumas of the displacement of the indigenous people, as well as the long years of black slavery, came to be seen as shaping events of the histories and cultures of Native Americans and African Americans respec- tively, which provided a narrative source and paradigm for the

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. Watkins (ibid.), rap music has ‘enabled black youth to assert their vision of black national- ism in imaginative ways’. The emergence of Black nationalism in hip-hop is complex in terms of its history. George (1999) and Boyd (2002) highlighted the impact of Black nationalist rhetoric in rap music along generational lines, noting a difference between those born close to the 1960s civil rights movements and those born during or after the late 1970s. Dagbovie (2005: 303) succinctly summarized the generational impact, Those young African Americans born in the 1980s

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household needs with little or no support from the fathers of their children’ (875) and the implications of these trends for social planning. Women are increasingly participating in the formal or informal economy, often in harsh and low-wage working conditions with few if any related job benefits. In the absence of any government support in caring for their children, they make do with a variety of coping strategies – frequently partial internal or even external migration, often leaving children at home in rural areas with relatives (e.g. South Africa, China, the