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into preexisting traditions dating back to the Romantic rediscovery of Nuremberg at the end of the eighteenth century, and they even claimed to go much further back, to the Nuremberg that was once a Reichsstadt of the Holy Roman Empire, a civitas imperialis, the city to which, in 1424, the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund entrusted the imperial insignia – the Emperor’s ceremonial crown, sword and orb, the concrete symbols of the Empire itself. It was as a symbol of this medieval Nuremberg that two Romantic stu- dents from Berlin, Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and

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Religious lyrics in medieval and early modern Scotland Creation and recreation Alasdair A. MacDonald (Groningen/Glasgow) Influences from the liturgy, from the Bible, from the tradition of medieval Latin hymnody, from popular song, and from the imperative of evangelisation con- spired to create a vast corpus of religious lyrics in the medieval vernacular lan- guages of western Europe. However, in certain respects the picture in (Lowland) Scotland is askew: there, the total production of religious lyrics is dispropor- tionally meagre; little is known before

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may differ markedly from what poet, artist, or artisan intended to express or from what the medieval audience expected to find. In other words, the manuscript space contains gaps through which the unconscious may be glimpsed.” 9 And secondly, in consequence, we might conceive it as a space of “gaps or interstices, in the form of interventions in the text made up of interpolations of visual and verbal insertions which may be conceived, in Jacques Lacan’s terms, as ← 23 | 24 → ‘pulsations of the unconscious’ by which the ‘subject reveals and conceals itself.’ If the

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Britain it is the year 1498 and the beginning of the Tudor rule, and in Germany the medieval epoch ex- tends up to 1517-19 and the Reformation. Some historians draw a line between the Middle Ages and modern times either in 1453, the year in which Constanti- nople succumbed to the Turkish troops, while others date the end of the Middle Ages by 1492 and the discovery of the Americas (cf. Sergi, 1998:29f). In Italy, the end of the Middle Ages is traditionally dated by the rise of the feudal signor- ie in the 15th century. This notwithstanding, the 5th and the 6th

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Medicine Matters in Five Comedies of Shakespeare 3.    Medical Interventions and Preparations Surgery Three great obstacles have historically curbed the development of surgery: the problem of haemorrhages, the question of pain, and the risk of infections. In effect, the surgical armamentarium of the Hippocratic doctor was already, at the morphological and operative levels, quite ample; nonetheless, the impossibility of carrying out an efficient disinfection, not to mention an anti-sepsis, precluded the effectiveness and the diffusion of surgery. 50 Some elements

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Introduction The Problem Area of the Work The subject of the undertaken research is the body and corporality in the early medieval legal codes of Germanic peoples (leges barbarorum). Such an area of interest requires an explanation and an exact definition. The matter concerns, first and foremost, the very category of the human body. This is connected with extremely important questions for our area of interest: in what meaning are we able to treat the regulations that appear in leges barbarorum as an account of the human body? What possibilities within

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Chapter 2 English and French in Medieval England 2.1. Language contact 2.1.1. The status of French Although the introduction of latinate vocabulary into English began before the Norman Conquest, most of it is known to have entered the language through contact with French after 1066. I will attempt here to summarise some recent discussion of the nature and extent of this contact. The question of who spoke French in medieval England, and what kind of French it was, has been much debated in recent years. The consensus used to be that Anglo-Norman French (AN

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The History of Skepticism | 111 → Chapter III. Christian Reception of Ancient Skepticism and Medieval Skepticism 1. The Early Christian Thinkers about Skepticism The ancient Christian thinkers interpreted skepticism in many different ways. Scholars from Byzantine studied Greek texts, especially Pyrrhonian, while in Rome the main source of knowledge about skepticism was Cicero’s account of academic skepticism, which, by virtue of its moderate form, gained some rare proponents among the Christians. Arnobius of Sicca (Adv. 2. 9–10) in the 3 rd century and his

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Reading Medieval European Women Writers | 119 → Chapter 3 Julian of Norwich – One of those Mystics … A Powerful Voice of Love in the English Late Middle Ages While I have focused so far on continental women writers, in this chapter the focus will finally switch to England, where we encounter at least two major mystical authors, Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe. Otherwise, however, the annals of British medieval literature are filled with the names of male poets, such as Thomas Hoccleve, Charles d’Orléans, John Lydgate, King James I of Scotland, John Gower

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119 Chapter 3 Julian of Norwich – One of those Mystics … A Powerful Voice of Love in the English Late Middle Ages While I have focused so far on continental women writers, in this chapter the focus will finally switch to England, where we encounter at least two major mystical authors, Julian of Norwich and Margery Kempe. Otherwise, however, the annals of British medieval literature are filled with the names of male poets, such as Thomas Hoccleve, Charles d’Orléans, John Lydgate, King James I of Scotland, John Gower, and Sir Thomas Malory.1 I am afraid