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współczesności, Kraków, 2003. 10 E.g. Packard, Robert. Refractions: Writers and Places. New York, Carroll & Graf, 1990, p. 3. 11 Benstock. Shari. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987. 12 Cf. one of the most recent anthologies dedicated to this topic: Literature and Place 1800- 2000, eds. Peter Brown, Michael Irwin (eds.). Bern: Peter Lang, 2006. From a Poetics of Space to a Politics of Place 239 with photographic clarity the contemporary stratifications and ethnic, national, religious, gender-based, and cultural shifts there13

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writers in various cities – cities in Europe and Latin America as well as in North America – to a crosswalk; when the stoplights changed, they had one of two options, either to remain on this side and continue to practice a modernist poetics of the epistemological dominant (as many of them have done, of course) or to cross to a postmodernist poetics of the ontological dominant. The streets were different, but the crossing was the same.5 There are three aspects to highlight here. Firstly, the metaphor of the crosswalk implies that the postmodernist author is the

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: “Archetypal Faust has all the elements of Western hubris and thus something of modern Everyman” (Beicken 1999: 3). This is probably the main reason why the tale of Dr. Faustus has been emulated and adapted by several western writers including Benet and Washington Irwing. In order to show how the figure of Faustus inspired and spoke to these writers on the other side of the Atlantic, I will first offer a short analyis of Marlow’s play and then move on to show how the cautionary tale of Dr. Faustus is rearticulated in the American context through the examples of the

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pleasure support of this project in 1982 by a Fulbright-Hays Faculty Research Abroad Fellowship and by the In- ternational Research and Exchanges Board. Furthermore, my work benefited through participation in 1983 in the IREX Senior Scholar Research Abroad Exchange Program with the Soviet Ministry of Higher Education. Finally I take pleasure in thanking the Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. Alex Manoogian Cultural Fund for a grant to defray the typesetting and publishing costs of this book. Portions of Parts 1-3 have appeared in earlier form as

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religious obser- vance. That argument, in turn, sheds light on the enigma of why, in the Andes, llamas and alpacas were never milked.20 Another romantic inclination is the desire to naturalize the grotesque, which explains my fascination with the Iberian pig as an indiscriminate scav- enger in Latin America.21 Drawn to the unspeakable, I studied the history of the spotted hyena in northeastern Africa where it is not just a scavenger, but also has been an aggressive predator on humans.22 Conceptualizing those recondite topics, as well as discussing in this book the hidden

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, meaning ‘relief’. Nevertheless, many felt that the changes of attitude did not last for long and that they would soon forget 60 Caroline Bynum has also criticised Turner, specifically his theory of liminality and his notion of Dominant symbols. Bynum’s views imply rejection of the basic assumptions in the theory of the rites of passage. See R.L. Grimes, ‘Ritual’, Guide to Study of Religion, eds. W. Braun and R.T. McCutcheon (London: Continuum, 2000), 266. See also C.W. Bynum, ‘Women’s Stories, Women’s Symbols: A Critique of Victor Turner’s Theory of Liminality

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sea paths.] Later, he will state that somehow the unity of the Peninsula was mainly due to the fact that it is a ‘península que é como a miniatura dum continente’17 [a peninsula that is like a miniature continent]. That was what Strabo saw as a bull’s skin, and which Saramago transformed into a ‘jangada de pedra’ [stone raft]; in fact, in his fiction, it is a stone raft that breaks away from the continent, heads south, and settles between South America and Africa.18 In this particular case, it is also worth noting that the term ‘Iberian’ which we are using for

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Ronshu (Meiji University), 56 (3–4), 97–109. Fairbrother, P., Yates, C.A.B. (eds) (2003). Trade Unions in Renewal: A Comparative Study. London: Continuum. Fantasia, R., Kim, V. (2004). Hard Work: Remaking the American Labor Movement. Berkeley: University of California Press. Frege, C.M., Kelly, J. (2003). ‘Union Revitalization Strategies in Comparative Per- spective’, European Journal of Industrial Relations, 9 (1), 7–24. Gordon, A. (1998). Wages of Af f luence: Labor and Management in Postwar Japan. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Gray, K. (2008). Korean

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., and Morris P. Fiorina. 1974. “The Paradox of Not Voting: A Decision Theoretic Analysis.” The American Political Science Review 68: 525-536. 44 Raymond Boudon Frey, Bruno S. 1997. Not Just for the Money: An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation. Chelten- ham: Edward Elgar. Geertz, Clifford. 1984. “Distinguished Lecture: Anti Anti-relativism.” American Anthropologist 86: 263-278. Horton, Robin. 1993. “Lévy-Bruhl, Durkheim and the Scientific Revolution.” In Patterns of Thought in Africa and the West. Essays on Magic, Religion and Science, 63-104. Cambridge

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Constitution. I cite two founding fathers of the United States, the first modern, society-wide democracy from which most western democracies originally took their lead. The first is from the widely read pamphlet, Common Sense by Thomas Paine, more influential than the Declaration of Independence in turning the American colonies from monarchy to- ward democracy. The second is from the first and most powerful chief executive of the US Republic, George Washington. From Common Sense: Some writers have so confounded society with government, as to leave little or no