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  • All: The African Continuum and African American Women Writers x
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(January 1999): 109–126. 4 Julianna Barr, “From Captives to Slaves: Commodifying Indian Women in the Borderlands.” Journal of American History 92 (June 2005): 19–46. Allan Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002). 5 See Barbara Olexer, The Enslavement of the American Indian in Colonial Times (Columbia: Joyous Publications, 2005; reprint, Barbara Olexer, The Enslavement of the American Indian, Library Research Associates, Publishers: Monroe, New York, 1982). 6 See Jack D. Forbes, Africans and Native Americans. The Language of Race and

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prevalence of sexual violence as due to rapid urbanisation, changing African gender dynamics in rela- tion to colonial urban influx control, segregation, mounting political and economic tensions, colonial definition of twelve as the age of consent for Africanwomen’, as well as monetisation of sex. To them, rape and sexual assaults on women mirrored the multiple battles for power to define the city, both in terms of behaviour and in terms of use of the space.83 Their 80 C. Cockburn, ‘The Continuum of Violence: A Gendered Perspective on War and Peace’, in W. Giles

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significant themes: the multiplicity of genres reflects a refusal to represent the world through the canons of classical literature and the narratives of testimony. The African narratives included in this study are written by African writers in order to give a first-hand account of their reactions to the events of the Tutsi genocide as they experienced them from a distance (mainly through televized media). These works in our corpus were known as African literature written in French by renowned writers including Boubacar Boris Diop, Tierno Monénembo, Koulsy Lamko

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personality cult and his ultra-nationalist crusade, but also to cultivate a ‘depoliticising patriotic theology’ amongst the Zimbabwean Christian community.48 The party mobilised numerous popular gospel musicians and prominent church ministers to endorse and drum up sup- port for Mugabe. Many of these men and women of the cloth projected Mugabe as Africa’s biblical Moses leading Zimbabweans to the promised land of milk and honey.49 Similarly, gospel artists became regular guest performers at State House and state functions while preferred church leaders officiated at

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–xvi; Koenigsberg, ‘Nationalism, Nazism and Genocide’ <http://www.ideologiesofwar.com/docs/rk_nationalism. htm#II> (accessed: 30 May 2010). 14 Koenigsberg, ‘Nationalism, Nazism and Genocide’; Koenigsberg, Nations Have the Right to Kill, p. 5. 15 M. Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda (Princeton: University of Princeton Press, 2001), p. 13. Introduction 7 decimate native populations in Africa, India, Australia, America and other parts of the world that they colonised, they justified those hierarchical ideolo gies of race and

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homophobically-inscribed psychoanalytic research on homosexuality in the dominant white culture. For further discussion, see my essay “Culture, Rhetoric, and Queer Identity: James Baldwin and the Identity Politics of Race and Sexuality” in relation to the reception of the novels of African- American writer James Baldwin in the 1950s and early 1960s. 4 See Bieber et al., Homosexuality: A Psychoanalytic Study, which is a new edition of the 1962 publication reprinted in 1988 under the names of the original team of co-authors who were also the researchers in the 1952

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identity is based on the ‘divided’ memory of the history of the country. Could this divided memory – linked to nation-building from the First World War to the fascist period and later, to the history of Italian migration, to the role of Italy during the Cold War, and to the current immigra- tion fluxes – be rewritten by contemporary migrant women writers? Introduction Italy began its colonial adventure in Eritrea and Somalia in the 1860s.1 Before the colonial conquest, however, Italy had organized expeditions of exploration in Africa with the intention of searching

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other hand, to what extent can we prevent the historic catastrophe from being swallowed into a simple mythical residue? Waberi answers this dual query by inscrib- ing the Rwandan genocide in a continuum of the literature of violence, not making it genocide among others, but building a memory of genocide that goes as far back as the slave trade. If annihilation destroys the ability of human beings to communicate, the writer becomes the spokesperson for those without a voice and puts on paper the long narrative of the infa- mies, as notes Waberi recalling Aimé

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’. Since 2005, and especially in 2008, various Italian governments have financed Libya with the aim of tackling the few illegal migrants who arrived in Italy. It was a complete shut-down method, without considering how to regulate a safe path to Europe. Thanks to such donations, the Libyan regime started indiscriminate home-to-home arrests and deportations from Libya that involved many men, women and children: sub-Saharan Africans who had been working and living in Libya for years. A lot of them were people who had no intention of going to Europe. These operations

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such restaurants marked the end of an era and ushered in a new one� The introduction of the large variety of Chinese regional cuisines reinvigorated Chinese American foodscapes� New Chinese cuisine received enthusiastic reactions from Americans� The famous food writer James Beard wrote in 1973, “Right now there’s a small cultural revolution in cooking going on� Everywhere you find people taking classes in Chinese cuisine, flocking to the newest Chines restaurants, buying Chinese food to take out�”89 In coastal cities, sophisticated white customers were no