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Sociocultural constraints in EFL teaching in Cameroon 235 and new sayings. Africa alone, through its world-famous writers like Wole Soy- inka, Chinua Achebe and others, has enriched the English language with sayings like "If you want to eat a toad, choose a fat and juicy one" (Achebe in No Longer at Ease) or "Do not test the depth of a river with both feet" (quoted by Bowers 1992: 35) which are most welcome in the language. However, many English words, expressions, idioms and sayings used all over the world are still very much British (sometimes American) as illustrated

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of power, e.g., Bishop Robert Lowth, the author of the most influential grammar book published in that period, which set the model for many other grammar writers like Lindley Murray, John Ash, or even up to a point Noah Webster in America (cf. Baugh and Cable 2002, Fisiak 2005). This phase is known in the history of the English language as prescriptive grammar, i.e., the grammar which both proscribed and prescribed the use of certain language forms rather than merely described what was being used by people (cf. the doctrine of usage fostered by Joseph

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the focus of researchers in various fields for over a decade. In the Middle East and North Africa, studies have been conducted on “internet empowerment” exploring how the internet is empowering women in rural parts of the Arab world. These are women who are illiterate and do not even have access to essential resources such as water and electricity, i.e. women living in underprivileged backgrounds (Davis, 2005). Similar studies on economic empowerment through the use of information and communication technology (ICT) raise many related issues particularly from

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are typical for men. For women it is more dif ficult to determine whether they needed to be able to write. They rarely mention anything in the letters about the jobs 14 Cf. the letter model written by the seventeenth-century writing-master Hendrik Meurs (Croiset van Uchelen 2005: 37). Linking Words to Writers 353 they might have had in order to secure an additional income, but we may assume that a lot of these jobs involved some kind of domestic work or retail trade, which did not require writing skills (De Wit 2008: 148–149). Wives of captains and skippers

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.) Interactional Competence. Washington: University Press of America, 231-62. Frankel, Richard 1995. Some Answers about Questions in Clinical Interviews. In G. Morris / R. Chenail (eds) The Talk of the Clinic: Explorations in the Analysis of Medical and Therapeutic Discourse. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 49-70. Gardner, Rod / Wagner, Johannes (eds) 2004. Second Language Conversations. London: Continuum. Conversation Analysis and Health Communication 59 Gill, Virginia Teas / Douglas Maynard 1995. On ‘Labelling’ in Actual Interaction: Delivering and Receiving Diagnoses

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Part II “New” and “old” Asian and African pluricentric languages and their varieties: Hindi, Somali, Persian and English in Cameroon, India and Australia Morgan Nilsson Somali as a pluricentric language: Corpus-based evidence from schoolbooks1 Abstract: Somali is spoken by more than 20 million people in five states in the Horn of Africa. This paper paper gives a short survey of the development from the first written texts in the late 19th century, through three decades of centralised standardisation in 1960– 1989, up to the present day divergence

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remaining markers allows for the acknowledgement of race as a biological fact� At the same time, it should be added that these findings do not conform to the traditional view of the concept� Firstly, the remaining 10–15% of markers overlap, which suggests a continuum, rather than clear-cut boundaries between consecutive groups (see Barbujani et al. 1997)� Secondly, the traditional division into four races is inadequate, since for example sub-Saharan Africans, who would be ascribed to the black race in the traditional model, display more variation than Asians and

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in 1879 [Nicolas 1998: 276]. When the first laboratory of psychology was established in France at the Rennes University in 1896, it was established in large part because the dean at the time was the Breton linguist Joseph Loth who saw the potential for the laboratory to also constitute a phonetics laboratory which would make sterling contributions to the linguistic researches in which he was interested [Nicolas 1998: 280]. 300 Chapter 8 enormous sample of languages whether exotic Celtic or South-American native languages. His introduction to instrumental

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an example of cross-fertilisation along the spoken/written generic continuum, or that the writer’s high academic standing justifies such a face-threatening approach. The second interpretation is consistent with the notion of irony as an ‘elite tool’ (Bauerlein 2001), deployed mainly by expert academics whose wordings are less likely to be misinterpreted.2 3.3. Emotivity Linked to such features is the expression of linguistic emotivity, also referred to as ‘affect’ (cf. Maynard 2002). This complex, multidimensional phenomenon (Baumann 2004) often implies

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self-identity. For example, one respondent explicitly stated, ‘I identify myself as a Black Canadian first’ (CL2:11). Many participants stressed the importance of the inclusivity of the term ‘Black’ and of the Black Canadian community, to which one can belong regardless of cultural or linguistic heritage. Some interviewees also discussed the importance of distinguishing themselves from African Americans in the United States. Data The data for this preliminary study come from 8 second generation Black Cana- dians (four women and four men) from the GTA