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  • All: Trust and Virtual Worlds. contemporary Perspectives x
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often treated with suspicion. For much of the later twentieth 268 Oriana Baddeley century the aesthetics and politics that characterized the early twentieth- century art movements in Mexico were some distance from the concerns of a contemporary art world. In fact, in the art practice of later twentieth- century Mexico there emerged an antagonism to the strong narratives and frequently overt didacticism of the Mural Movement, with its often apolo- gist rhetoric of nationalism and its complex relationship to the politics of the 1910 Revolution. The political co

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are the logical, dialectical attributes of such bodies; they are also called events87 or ideas and form an open-ended dimension: “l’idéel”, as opposed to the Platonist dimension of “idéal” determined as the realm of legitimate essential models. Ef fects are non-corporeal and not the cause of each other. They do not verify or falsify states of bodies. A double dimension – ef fective and ideal – exists for any reality. Endorsing this Stoic distinction88 Deleuze calls virtual this world of ef fects, this ef fectual (“ef fectuelle”) or surface dimension made of

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have characterised approaches to texts, and opening up our critical frameworks to the multi-layered sur- faces, dif ferences, connections and virtualities that contemporary women writers seem to articulate. We might do better to advocate postfeminist theoretical perspectives in place of those which continue to read texts by women writers in French in relation to second-wave feminist notions of writing the body or of écriture féminine. Such postfeminist perspectives, I suggest, would enable more accurate readings of the contemporary female subject, as an

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conflict inherent in two people trying to know the “outer” world from different perspectives’.50 Given the introduction of subjectivity into the human experience, this should, of course, come as no surprise; as Eugene Goodheart writes in a 1999 essay on the topic of the omniscient narrator in George Eliot’s Middlemarch, in a world after the modernist shift, the omniscient narrator is, ‘an archaism to be patronized when he is found in the works of the past and to be scorned when he appears in contemporary work’.51 Of the texts with individualized, subjective and

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diversity. The cultural concepts of napoletanità, sicilianità and meridionalismo on a large have been sustained by a broad social and political base. Not the last role was played by writers who had difficulties in rethinking the Italian South outside of its traditional image (cf. Mignone, 1998:178). Whereas for most Southern writers the North was a perspectival centre opposed to the southern periphery, the latter attained critical and yet positively charged conno- tations of a “counter-world”, or terra altera. The authors contrasted it with the problematic North

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themselves or by another tribe. Yet no one can persuade the Reverend that the denial of muskets to the natives is a matter of responsibility towards them, and does not mean a lack of trust, good will, and respect. The opulence of resources, whose scarcity was used as legitimation for the internecine wars in the Old World, indeed does not guarantee the peaceful coexistence of the tribes in the New one, and soon after the donation of the fire- arms a war between the Vipemeoc and their neighbours unleashes. Remember- ing the bloodshed, Leonardo notes in his diary: I

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Fábio Almeida de Carvalho 10 Some Considerations on Processes of Literary Circulation: The Indigenous Cultural Matrix within the Brazilian Cultural Matrix1 I The chapter at hand discusses the question guiding the present volume – “in what way does a given literary or cultural element, bearing an alleged origin in one place, insert itself into another place?” – from a perspective rooted in the recognition that the movement towards affirming and increasingly valuing the identities of American peoples is built along two dimensions, which are neither

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the dec- adent fanaticisms of the city, or mere trivial and contemporary things, towards an ‘interior rhythm’ of self-awareness. In this way, the heteronymic dialogue suggests that invisible translations are prerequisite to liberate language and its speakers from inherited ‘traditional’, or normative, language. Mora advocates for mental images without an order or sequence, which Reis values as much as the interior rhythms of poets. Reis further argues that Caeiro’s ‘interior rhythm’ coherently articulates the fragmentary nature of the world rather than

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from the fact of being women. But sexual gender is only one of the many ingredients in a writer’s perspective, like, for instance, the fact of having been born in a big city or in the countryside. (2011: 217) Clearly, Montero regards gender as just one of many components that contribute to the way a writer sees and describes the world; a component that is no more significant than age, social status, religion, cultural context, or sexual orientation. A number of her contemporaries share this opinion: Carmen Posadas, for instance, points out that ‘In my view

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Spanish Republicans who had fought in the Resistance. These veterans rode in tanks bearing the names of battles of the Spanish Civil War. The term maquis is Corsican in origin, the word macchia referring to low, dense Mediterranean growth that survives in inhospitable terrain, as the guerrillas them- selves attempted to do, in both literal and metaphorical spaces. The word’s Latin root, macula, spot or stain, evokes the appearance of the areas of such vegetation on the land. During World War II, the derivative term maquisards came to refer, in France, to the