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at the same time subverted these conventions to make the film more complex. With the mixture of influences and the large scope of the production, the film raised discussion on the Irishness of the more internationally- oriented Irish cinema of the 1990s. Fintan O’Toole pondered the question of Irish national cinema in The Irish Times: If it has done nothing else, Neil Jordan’s Michael Collins has certainly raised in the most immediate way the whole question of what is Irish about Irish cinema? Having your first great national epic made by a Hollywood studio

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negotiation, compromise and peace, and portrays de Valera as the one unwilling to compromise, the one responsible for the Civil War. Interestingly, though Eamon de Valera had earlier enjoyed the status of a revered figure in Ireland, his negative portrayal did not raise much controversy or criticism but was instead widely accepted. Evidently Jor- dan’s generation and younger people were ready to debunk old myths and shibboleths and look for new definitions of Irishness in the changing situation of the 1990s, even if the older generations may still have had a

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coined by John Dobson [1999] to draw a contrast with the conven- tional “technical firm” of vertical integration as well as with the “moral firm” which simply aspires to add an ethical edge to the technical firm. 9 Pine & Gilmore [1999]; also Schmitt, Rogers & Vrotsos [2004]. 10 Austin & Devin [2003]. 140 2. One of the more influential examples of an experience economy is the classic Hollywood studio system. Historically it made up the infrastructure of the equiv- alent of a small city devoted to the construction of literal social and natural spaces for the

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domestication of the rebellious Beats as media “Beat-niks” (378).10 Behind these shining surface images, however, the unceasing hard work of constructing a genuine economic behemoth is lovingly detailed by Starr. In the prior volumes, this side to Starr’s larger narrative had already focused readers’ attention to the miraculous, if often problematic, projects of water systems, highways, and real estate expansion—not to mention the infrastructural reality behind the Hollywood film and media industry—making up the literal formation of “California” during the 1910s and

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occupation, both sides withdrew from the subject matter somewhat, the Japanese especially so, while American filmmakers engaged in triumphal productions. With the beginning of the Cold War and the threat of the Soviet Union and Communist China to Japan proper and to American interests in Southeast Asia, both countries and their cinemas were brought together. But with the American defeat and retreat from Southeast Asia, Japan began to stake out a position among its filmmakers that raised the issue of the morality of the victors in the war against Japan. In particular

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principal elements of historical cinema, including plots and characters as well as visual imagery […] seems difficult, because the scope of historical films is broad. […] Cinematic history exhibits such great diversity in terms of settings, plots, and characters that it seems far less encoded than Hollywood’s gang- ster films or horror movies are.’10 Historical topics have been presented in various forms and we have seen history as epic, history as spectacle, history as romance, history as adventure, history as comedy, history as suspense film. Yet Toplin argues

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thought with the evolution of California civilization owes a great deal to the Californian cre- ation of “Hollywood,” that complex of cinematic and related literary and media industries constituting the “film business.”29 As home to the California film industry, the city of Hollywood had become (after incorporation in 1915 into Los Angeles proper) the site for its “movies” – originally referring to both the actors as well as the products of the newest of genres emerging out of modern technol- ogy. By the 1920s something like a studio system was fully in operation

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at the time, although Ireland was often treated as a colony. Yet, in the words of Bill Kissane (2005, 48), ‘there was consensus among 32 chapter 3 beginning it is clear that this is an Irish story, told from an Irish point of view, reflecting on the period of Ireland’s struggle for independence. The factual statement of history prompts the audience to take the film seriously as history. George F. Custen, in his study of Hollywood biographical films from 1927 to 1960, notes that the use of voiceover or title cards in almost every biopic (of the time) to

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to bomb American military installations on Oahu, and sank the Ari- zona. There are carnage, confusion, death, destruction and, certainly, heroisms. For the American people, the target of propaganda film, this sneak Japanese attack and destruction of American military installations are reasons enough for the United States to participate in the war. Like Prelude to War, December 7th aims to raise the enthusiasm of the American people and soldiers in the international struggle. 3 Prelude to War. 4 Prelude to War. 5 December 7th, dir. by John Ford and Gregg Toland

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-century, a not unlikely probability, would fuel further qualitative advances that could easily raise California to permanent status as anywhere between the third and fifth most powerful economy in the world. At the same time, California has never been granted its deserved autonomy as a force to be reckoned with in world history. This myopia is often supported by such pejorative references to Californian civilization as “Lalaland,” “Dream- 1 An early version of this chapter was published as “California Civilization: Beyond the United States of America?,” Thesis Eleven