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the reasons being that most are perceived as artistic failures.1 For example, Ginette Vincendeau wrote, “aesthetically these films were ‘terrible’, and financially they turned out to be a disaster” (1999: 208). The few surviving MLVFs are scattered in various archives and locations, and accessing them is difficult. An additional reason is that their existence was overshadowed “by the sound patents struggles” (Vincendeau 1999: 207) between Hollywood and the European film companies for market space in the 1930s. In this paper, I examine MLVFs as artistic

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. The concepts of national identity that developed in literature and film during the 1930s and the 1940s also had their roots in the 1920s and before. National identity was a major topic for writers during the 1920s. Intellectual giants such as Jose Vasconcelos, Antonio Caso and Alfonso Reyes directed much of their writing towards understanding the national character and problems, considerably influencing writers in the decades to follow. The film industry was weak in the 1920s as a result of fierce competition from Hollywood. However, the main elements of what

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not only that figurative language is acceptable in poetry but that it constitutes its main beauty. Epic poetry required that the style be both perspicuous and sublime; metaphors were the best means of raising the language, and Aristotle had sanctioned their use. Beauties-and-defects criticism mostly concentrated on the poet’s use of figures; though these were generally treated as mere decoration, some poets and critics saw that metaphor is the proper language of poetry. […] Usually, metaphors and similes were praised for being ‘speaking pictures’; as such they

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they could live without. Bernays reminds us that it was once believed that universal public educa- tion would enhance man’s ability to control his environment, raise his standard of living, and make him happier. However, we must also examine the reverse side of the coin: the ability to read also leads people to adhere to a prescribed way of thinking and purchase certain products: “…universal literacy has given him…rubber stamps inked with advertising slogans, with editorials, with pub- lished scientific data, with the trivialities of the tabloids…Each man

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in the hands of the United States. National films adopted a mimetic tendency toward the genres and narrative forms of Hollywood cinema, a situation that would be replicated in the phase of the talkies. From 1914 to 1931, production was consolidated with certain continuity that some historians had begun to cha- racterise as protoindusty by the end of the 1930s. The most notable work of this period is Nobleza gaucha (Humberto Cairo, Eduardo Martínez de la Pera and Ernesto Gunche, 1915), a melodrama crossed through by gaucho literature. La- ter, two films arose

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-landscapes that unite places which, although far apart, have similar city-lettering at certain times, especially when (to continue the cinema example) particular films gain importance and certification status in famous festivals like Cannes, Berlin and Venice, or have won awards and world-renowned events like Hollywood’s Oscars. The strong presence of particular places in culture industries enhances the relevance of symbols which are then repeated and enacted in other places. The Eiffel Tower, for example, can be found in many clothes stores and restaurants in various

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means of mass communica- tion in the latter half of the 20th century (cf. Clark, 1996:426), others postulate “the continINg lack of a clearly identifiable national culture” (Baraski, 2001:10), which raises grave questions about the nature of national identity in Italy, both past and present. 2. Problem of Italian identity To write about Italian identity is more difficult than to describe cultural and his- torical collective belonging of many other nations. Already the notion of “Italy” represents a major theoretical problem: There is no single thread of

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by no means the only Rodoredan critic to have responded to the staunch objections raised by Catalan scholars with regard to feminist analysis. Neus Carbonell has argued that this disregard for feminism arises from a misconstruction of the theory’s focus on the study of cultural formulations of sexual identity. In the case of Rodoreda, Carbonell claims, Catalan criticism has defended its position arguing that the author’s public disengagement with militant feminism renders its critical approach irrelevant (1994a: 11). Carbonell has noted two distinct

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writing practices from women poets dovetails into an informative assessment of experimental poetries. The reader is struck by the proliferating range of approaches that have devel- oped. Lyric poetry, philosophy and the environment are covered as interlocking themes; multiculturalism is introduced as well and helps to give the chapter greater relevance to Canadian Studies across the board. The chapter also raises 14 Introduction the interesting question, which the reader is left to answer in light of the material referenced, as to whether Canadian poetry

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internal gender paradoxes that are symptomatic of the paradoxes of post-Independence politics in Spanish America. Nevertheless, the very fact that a named woman should sign, publish and claim ownership of her own writing, irrespective of political persua- sion, was crucial to raising awareness of women’s presence and exclusion from the post-Independence public-political sphere: ‘By publishing, women reminded the self-appointed producers of public culture that women, too, were culturally productive. Women’s intervention changed the shape of public culture in that