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International Criminal Tribunals as Actors of Domestic Change

The Impact on Media Coverage, Volume 2

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Edited by Klaus Bachmann, Irena Ristić and Gerhard Kemp

Do International Criminal Tribunals trigger social change, provide reconciliation, stabilize fragile post-conflict societies? Many authors claim they do, but they base their assumptions mainly on theoretical considerations and opinion polls. The editors and authors of this book take a different position: based on extensive field research in nine European and African countries, they examine whether tribunal decisions resulted in changes in media frames about the conflicts which gave rise to the creation of these tribunals. International Tribunals hardly ever shape or change the grand narratives about wars and other conflicts, but they often manage to trigger small changes in media frames which, in some cases, even lead to public reflexion about guilt and responsibility and more awareness for (the respective enemy's) victims. On an empirical basis, this book shows the potential of International Criminal Justice, the possibilities, but also the limits of International Criminal Tribunals. Volume 2 presents the evidence from Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan and South Sudan.

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International Criminal Tribunals as Actors of Domestic Change

The Impact on Media Coverage, Volume 1

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Edited by Klaus Bachmann, Irena Ristić and Gerhard Kemp

Do International Criminal Tribunals trigger social change, provide reconciliation, stabilize fragile post-conflict societies? Many authors claim they do, but they base their assumptions mainly on theoretical considerations and opinion polls. The editors and authors of this book take a different position: based on extensive field research in nine European and African countries, they examine whether tribunal decisions resulted in changes in media frames about the conflicts which gave rise to the creation of these tribunals. International Tribunals hardly ever shape or change the grand narratives about wars and other conflicts, but they often manage to trigger small changes in media frames which, in some cases, even lead to public reflexion about guilt and responsibility and more awareness for (the respective enemy’s) victims. On an empirical basis, this book shows the potential of International Criminal Justice, the possibilities, but also the limits of International Criminal Tribunals. Volume 1 presents the evidence from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Serbia and Croatia.

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458 458 Praise for On Language, Democracy, and Social Justice “On Language, Democracy, and Social Justice provides a forum for Noam Chomsky to articulate crucial insights, while offering an uplifting narrative describing a concerned individual’s personal correspondence, and then interaction, with Chomsky himself. As such, it’s a useful book that addresses contemporary issues, most notably regarding Haiti, but it’s also a behind-the-scenes description, one of a multitude, of how Chom- sky relates to people concerned with making a difference in the world, and

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working alongside and through civil society organizations. These discussions stem from a two-year pilot project from March 2009 to March 2011, which has explored the nature of public outreach programmes in BiH, involving residential fieldwork in Sarajevo, Mostar and Bijeljina in October and November 2009. This project lays the groundwork for a larger empirical investigation of the implementation of transitional justice programmes in BiH, funded by the UK’s Economic and Social Research Council, from May 2011 to April 2013. The study under discussion in this chapter

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the extended 1 About historical consciousness, see, for example, Carr 1986 and Rüsen 2004. 14 sense of the term is produced and consumed by and within the arenas of social memory, public history and academic research .2 The relationship between academic history and public memory may be both antagonistic and collaborative. In the nation-building era of the nineteenth and twentieth century, historians were involved in ‘the invention of tradition’ and ‘imagining of communities’.3 They bolstered the coherence of national communi- ties through grand narratives of

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Transitional Justice. Other elements of Transitional Justice are criminal prosecution, truth commissions, reparation programs, gender justice, and security system reforms (ICTJ 2009). In the following, the author intends to link this definition of Transitional Justice with the aims of social justice (Chang 2007: 15). As mentioned in the 228-Responsibility Report, the 3rd con- ceptualization of human rights from 1970 emphasizes the respect for educa- tion, history, culture, and protection of the rights of the underprivileged groups (Chang 2007: 68). The report then

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terms, the policy of historical justice may take the form of the state creating conditions for a free deliberation about the interpretation of the past, both among politicians and scientists, that might lead to a consensus in this field (a kind of bottom-up approach one can expect to be applied by more liberal regimes)� On the other hand, the incoming regime may simply introduce a new official narrative con- taining certain, clearly defined interpretations of the past (a kind of top-down approach that may be more typical to less liberal political regimes

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11 Foreword In a post-conflict society, social memory is more a burden than a positive re- source. Memory reminds the parties of the conflict of past injustices and guilt instead of providing socially empowering narratives for the community. During the last few decades, political leaders in different countries have been increasingly active in referring to both the positive and negative legacies of their respective national pasts. Memory laws have been proposed and even passed in order to maintain national history as a positive unifying story. At the same

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justice� A focus on symbolic issues also means that the impact of the discussed measures on political development can hardly be observable in such a short period of time: at the macro-level of the whole society, a reassessment of the already distant past will take place not at the moment when some symbols of that past are removed from the public space, but because the incoming generations will be raised in new narratives� The second dimension of Ukrainian transitional justice policies is defined by the Euromaidan protests as a threshold separating, the “fallen

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Index A Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi-Justice and Development Party (AKP), 110 Anastasiadis, President, 115 Asia Minor Catastrophe of 1922, Greek narrative of, 48–50, 56 Dido Sotiriu’s leftist, anti-imperi- alist and anti-nationalistic views, 48–49 Greek presence, maintenance of, 49 information on Turkish people, 49–50 Assman, Jan, 157 Ayfantis, George, 115 B Bournous, Yiannis, 112 C Çalsýn Sazlar, 168–171 chauvinism, 97 children’s ethnic awareness and ethnic self-identification, 20 cinema, as memory tool, 156–159 narration of memories, 158–159 social memory