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Discovering Women’s History

German-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950)

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Edited by Christa Spreizer

Discovering Women’s History brings to light the work of a selection of German-speaking women journalists from the first half of the twentieth century who made significant contributions to German life and culture, yet are barely known today. The volume builds upon scholarship on women and culture by focusing on individual journalists who published both within and outside the periodicals of women’s organizations and women’s magazines, thus offering a sampling of the vastly different perspectives of German-speaking women journalists during this period. The contributors to the volume aim to raise awareness regarding the great range of viewpoints represented by women journalists as well as challenging gender-based stereotypes of women’s writing that have traditionally tended to simplify the complexities of women’s diverse experiences. The volume closes with Erika Mann’s autobiographical fragment ‘I, of all People’ published here for the first time in the original English.
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Title Christa Spreizer (ed.) Discovering Women’s History German-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950) Oxford · Bern · Berlin · Bruxelles · Frankfurt am Main · New York · Wien

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About the book About the book Discovering Women’s History brings to light the work of a selection of German-speaking women journalists from the first half of the twentieth century who made significant contributions to German life and culture, yet are barely known today. The volume builds upon scholarship on women and culture by focusing on individual journalists who published both within and outside the periodicals of women’s organizations and women’s magazines, thus offering a sampling of the vastly different perspectives of German-speaking women journalists

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in German Women’s Writing . 351 pp. 2011. ISBN 978-3-03911-568-6 12   Daniela Richter, Domesticating the Public: Women’s Discourse on Gender Roles in Nineteenth-Century Germany . 205 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343- 0180-0 13   Cordelia Scharpf, Luise Büchner. Eine evolutionäre Frauenrechtlerin des 19. Jahrhunderts . 656 pp. 2013. ISBN 978-3-0343-0704-8 14   Alexandra Merley Hill, Playing House: Motherhood, Intimacy, and Domestic Spaces in Julia Franck’s Fiction . 192 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343-0767-3 15   Christa Spreizer (ed.), Discovering Women’s History: German

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two groups. 13 In both essays, Susman then mines the German history of ideas for the root causes of these responses to the war, and of the structural problems that conditioned them. In ‘Die Revolution und die Frau’, this approach allows Susman to interrogate the relatively apolitical history of Germany’s women: though she admits some few exceptions, Susman contends that even Germany’s educated women had failed to follow the lead of the English suffragettes and the women of the French and Russian revolutions, dismissing them as ‘närrische Mannweiber …, schreckhafte

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makes her 1937 journey through Europe, covering primarily Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltic states, her understanding of politics demonstrates a better appreciation for the foreign. In her focus on the histories of various regions told through the stories of individuals whom she encounters (frequently women), she cleverly weaves the political through the personal, ← 164 | 165 → offering an engaging and enlightening feminist approach long before such is conscientiously and intentionally defined. On a tour of Nazi Germany, Schwarzenbach published a five-part series

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excused this absence with the sexual politics of the paper’s earlier history, noting that ‘in the Book ← 303 | 304 → Review ’s early history women were not invited to contribute very often.’ 58 But McGrath’s political correctness was only a halfhearted gesture. If he had simply turned the page to the foreign books in the 1920s and 1930s, he could have found evidence of an untimely broadmindedness and internationalism on the part of his predecessors: he would have discovered that for sixteen years a German woman reported on books and book culture in Germany and that

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the ‘Aff’ 4 – as Erika Mann ironically described herself – then pursued a career as an actress in Berlin after graduating from high school (her dream since childhood), 5 she had a letter of reference from her father to give to Max Reinhardt, the head of the Deutsches Theater. Although they teased her about the high cost of her vocal coach, her parents did not try to stop her from pursuing a career that did not conform to bourgeois conventions, but was an attempt at an emancipated female way of life, something only available to women as dancers or artists at the

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Ichenhaeuser, that the field of journalism can present but an incomplete history if it lacks an account of women’s wishes and interests, resonated with a generation of journalists determined to present their experiences in the early twentieth century. Yet, while many scholars have focused on the dense and complex social, cultural and political fields of Wilhelmine (1870–1918), Weimar (1919–33) and Nazi Germany (1933–45), awareness of the prominent role played by German-speaking women journalists has been long in coming. Well into the Cold War period, it seemed a commonly

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Acknowledgements Acknowledgements First, I would like to thank the many contributors to this volume for their wonderful work and collegial efforts in bringing it to fruition. I learned much during our extended conversations and e-mail exchanges regarding these writers and the vast field of women in journalism. This volume is by no means exhaustive and offers only a limited sampling of the writers of the period. My colleagues’ engaged interest in the history of women and journalism as it relates to German culture is inspiring. A special heartfelt thanks to Dr

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-Hess’s indebtedness to Nietzsche is revealed very clearly here. Like many other women writers at the time, she saw Nietzsche as guiding the way towards the destruction of obsolete social norms and stifling conventions, and championing the individual’s liberation in a way that would allow for fulfilment in the intellectual, emotional and sexual realms. 9 Maya, the protagonist of Die Stimme , is a singer, her voice is conceptualized as her anima , an individual’s true inner self. Consequently, the loss of voice, the ‘Versagen der melodischen Kraft’, is an expression of her

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Marseilles in March 1942. 10 Leitner’s literary writings, whether they appeared between the covers of a book or in the press, served the dual purpose of improving her readers’ political judgement and informing them about the material conditions in which many of their fellow citizens lived, especially young working-class women. Leitner was a propagandist for women’s rights as well as for a ← 248 | 249 → workers’ revolution which would benefit both sexes, serving these causes with wit, humour, and a degree of literary sophistication which has gone largely unnoticed by

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shapes her urban portraiture. Gabriele Tergit was born Elise Hirschmann in 1894 to a prosperous German-Jewish industrialist family in the eastern part of Berlin, 1 and she established herself as one of a number of prominent women writers who ← 267 | 268 → contributed to Berlin’s metropolitan broadsheets and journals during the Weimar Republic. Tergit was completing her university education as a student of history and philosophy when she began writing articles for numerous prestigious newspapers, including the Berliner Tageblatt and Berliner Börsen–Courier . In

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der Puls am fühlbarsten klopft als weitab.’ 23 Packaged as feminine fortitude, Kardorff’s message to hold out was a positive counterpoint to the use of fear or threats. In ‘Die Frau von dreißig Jahren’ Kardorff uses the image of a ‘magic film’ to depict her view of ‘today’s’ woman. The ‘film’ begins in 1929 and describes the experiences of a generation of women born during the First World War – women on the brink of adulthood when Hitler assumed power. Kardorff traced the difficult but exciting shared history of this generation – their youth curtailed by the

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Appendix ERIKA MANN Appendix I, of All People What I am about to write is a very personal book about things of very general, indeed, universal significance – a frank and graphic report of my impressions and activities during the past ten years, from 1933 to 1943: the Hitler decade, the most critical period in modern history. 1 This period – now approaching its end – is stained with blatant lies and rampant violence. It has been a nightmarish decade: the decade of German concentration camps, the Abyssinian War, the Civil War in Spain, the invasions of Austria and

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Aftermath (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2008). Frei, Norbert, and Johannes Schmitz, Journalismus im Dritten Reich (Munich: Beck, 1989). Friedländer, Saul, Nazi Germany and the Jews: The Years of Persecution 1933–1939 (New York: Harper Collins, 1997). Garbarini, Alexandra, Numbered Days: Diaries and the Holocaust (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006). Grossmann, Atina, ‘Grams, Calories, and Food: Languages of Victimization, Entitlement, and Human Rights in Occupied Germany, 1945–1949’, Central European History 44/1 (2011). Harvey, Elizabeth, Women in the

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edition Hegel on Hamann (Northwestern University Press, 2008) and is the editor of Hamann and the Tradition (Northwestern University Press, 2012). Her articles have appeared in Seminar, Arts and Humanities in Higher Education and Postscripts: The Journal of Sacred Texts and Contemporary Worlds . She is currently working on a translation of Rilke’s early poetry and an article about the parable as a literary paradigm. DEBORAH BARTON is a PhD candidate in the History Department at the University of Toronto. Her dissertation explores the role and influence of women

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Gustav Cohn’s Die deutsche Frauenbewegung (1896). See Asenijeff, ‘Eine Geschichte der deutschen Frauenbewegung’ (A history of the German women’s movement), Die Zeit 207 (17 September 1898), 181. 10   Asenijeff, Ist das die Liebe? Kleine psychologische Erzählungen und Betrachtungen von Elsa Asenijeff (Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, 1896). 11   See Harriet Anderson, Utopian Feminism: Women’s Movements in fin-de-siècle Vienna . (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992). 12   Asenijeff, ‘Männermitleid’, Die Gesellschaft 12/1 (1896), 790–5, here 792. 13   Ibid

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Frau , Helene Stöcker’s Neue Generation ), major Berlin dailies now carried women’s sections, including the Berliner Tageblatt , Vossische Zeitung , Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger and Vorwärts . Women were also working in the editorial offices of these large major dailies and participating in national cultural life as never before. The field of German journalism did indeed seem to be taking shape, as she writes in Die Journalistik als Frauenberuf , to present a more complete human history that gave prominent place to women’s wishes and interests. ← 81 | 82 → ‘Fast

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Weibes Ruf und Berufung erfolgt, werden wir jedem Frauengeist, der “strebend sich bemüht”, Anerkennung und Ehrerbietung zollen. […] Insbesondere unsere Glaubensgenossinnen, die gewohnt sind, Menschenlose nur nach Jahrtausenden zu messen .’ 1 With such feuilleton articles, Wittner worked to validate women’s contributions to professional spheres, particularly literature and journalism; to offer both Jewish women and men due credit for their achievements in light of growing antisemitism; and to advocate for the special talents of Jews due to their historical and

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modest and unfashionable hairstyle parted down the middle, by 1927 she had a wavy bob. The ideal of the New Woman is characterized by financial independence from men, and equality in love, sex and marriage, but also by certain fashions – bobbed hair, short skirts, an athletic appearance – and by the conquest of public space. Women became a presence in major cities, cafés, cinemas and bars. 2 Vicki Baum seems to perfectly fit into this picture, and a portrait of her always preceded her articles. The scholar Julia Bertschik references Baum’s New Woman as the

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Proletarian Literature and the Woman Question The Journalism of Alice Rühle-Gerstel (1894–1943) during the Weimar Republic JANA MIKOTA Proletarian Literature and the Woman Question The Journalism of Alice Rühle-Gerstel (1894–1943) during the Weimar Republic ‘Der Weg der Tätigkeit der Frau im Journalismus ist ein langer und mühevoller gewesen’, writes the Munich media scholar Adolf Dresler in his 1936 book Die Frau im Journalismus . 1 As Erhard Schütz has pointed out, Dresler’s portrayals of women writers show that ‘Anteil und Bedeutung von Autorinnen im

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Illustrations Illustrations   Grete Meisel-Hess, 1913. ullstein bild / The Granger Collection, New York.   Elsa Asenijeff, 1914. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München.   First International Women’s Day. Protests across Berlin demanding the introduction of the women’s vote, 19 March 1911. Photograph by the Haekel Brothers. ullstein bild / The Granger Collection, New York.   Margarete Susman. Courtesy of the Leo Baeck Institute, New York.   Doris Wittner, 1930. ullstein bild / The Granger Collection, New York.   Annemarie Schwarzenbach, 1933. Atelier Binder

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Her Art

Greek Women in the Arts from Antiquity to Modernity

Diane Touliatos-Miles

This is the first publication that narrates the significant contributions of Greek women in the various genres of the arts in a historical perspective from antiquity to contemporary Greece. It discusses Greek women in the disciplines of music, the visual arts, poetry and literature, film and theatre, and history. The historical roles of Greek women in music are examined including the first woman composer with preserved music that is a Byzantine-Greek. Readers will discover that it was a Greek woman philosopher who influenced the formation of Socrates’ thinking and that the Iliad and Odyssey were actually written by a Hellenic woman but were later appropriated by Homer. Classic and contemporary Greek female writers are in the foreground as well as the modern art music and popular music by Greek women composers. The roles of Greek women in drama are examined and the significant works of contemporary Greek women artists are recognized.
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Maria Soraya Garcia-Sanchez

Travelling in Women’s History with Michèle Roberts’s Novels: Literature, Language and Culture is a journey to discover Roberts’s work as a feminist writer, novelist and memoirist. An overall analysis and detailed overview of Michèle Roberts’s novels first provide the reader with a study of Roberts’s rewriting of stories that have been inspired by historical, mythological and religious women who gain a voice in her fiction. Not only will the content of Roberts’s novels be explored but also its connection to form, as this feminist writer has always linked body to language. Second, the book analyses personal and public discoveries in Roberts’s memoir, Paper Houses: A Memoir of the ‘70s and Beyond (2007). The personal, professional and political journeys the writer-protagonist strolls in London will be part of a feminist culture and language that the memoirist preserves in her autobiography. Finally, two conversations with Michèle Roberts from 2003 and 2010 are presented in a last chapter in order to illustrate Roberts’s arguments when writing as a woman.
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C hrista Spreizer (ed.) D iscovering W om en’s H istory: G erm an-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950) Peter Lang Discovering Women’s History brings to light the work of a selection of German-speaking women journalists from the first half of the twentieth century who made significant contributions to German life and culture, yet are barely known today. The volume builds upon scholarship on women and culture by focusing on individual journalists who published both within and outside the periodicals of women’s organizations and women’s magazines, thus

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How the International Women’s Movement Discovered the ‘Troubles’

Brokered and Broken Transnational Interactions during the Northern Ireland Conflict, 1968–1981

Janou Glencross

This book analyses women’s transnational encounters in the Northern Ireland case. It connects both the different national contexts of women’s movements and different strands of feminism against the setting of a raging local conflict and new international frameworks. During the 1970s the international women’s movement, composed of a spectrum ranging from radical feminist to conservative, focussed on problems arising from the ‘Troubles’. Using a wide range of European and American sources this book highlights the nationality of the women involved and what it meant for their activism. It argues that activists reflected their own national backgrounds as they worked through a new international framework – driven by media, European integration, the UN’s decade for women and international social movements. This work contributes to both women’s and gender history and to the study of international social movements and transnationalism. It brings them together to show activists’ complicated agendas and how they intersected at national, local and international levels.
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of biological difference; arguably, sport is one of the last bastions of ‘acceptable’ inequality on the basis of sex in contemporary Britain. Thus women’s cricket has much to tell us ←2 |  3→ about the lives of women in modern Britain: the constraints they faced, set against the new freedoms they enjoyed. How far, for example, were women cricketers able to operate in autonomous ways, given that much of their access to cricket grounds and other resources has been controlled by men throughout modern history? Ultimately, it is argued that the case study of women’s

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they acted collectively in these age-old industries of tobacco and millinery. Women have a long history of working in addition to fulfilling their family duties going back well beyond the industrial revolution, but somehow in France and elsewhere their history has only been touched on very lightly as an historical topic. However, France has a strong intellectual tradition of feminist thought and militancy with regard to criticising the working conditions of women: Suzanne Voilquin, Flora Tristan, Pauline Roland, Eugenie Niboyet, Elisa Lemonnier and Jeanne Deroin

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-3-03911-568-6 12 Daniela Richter, Domesticating the Public: Women’s Discourse on Gender Roles in Nineteenth-Century Germany. 205 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343-0180-0 13 Cordelia Scharpf, Luise Büchner. Eine evolutionäre Frauenrechtlerin des19. Jahrhunderts . 656 pp. 2013. ISBN 978-3-0343-0704-8 14 Alexandra Merley Hill, Playing House: Motherhood, Intimacy, and Domestic Spaces in Julia Franck’s Fiction. 192 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343-0767-3 15 Christa Spreizer (ed.), Discovering Women’s History: German-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950) . 428 pp. 2014. ISBN 978

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Geschichte und Gesellschaft des modernen China | 171 → Hsiung Ping-chen 1 In Mutual Gaze 相互凝視 – Woman and History via English Words or through the Chinese Window Abstract: This essay examines how, taking the Chinese women’s history as an example, there appears to be a build-in intellectual imbalance in the making of Euro-American or Anglophone world of gender studies in incorporating sources and scholarship regarding China or Asia. The Seeing and the Believing ( 見解 ) In many languages, an intellectual revelation, an insight, is often referred to as the

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-3-03911-568-6 12   Daniela Richter, Domesticating the Public: Women’s Discourse on Gender Roles in Nineteenth-Century Germany. 205 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343-0180-0 13   Cordelia Scharpf, Luise Büchner. Eine evolutionäre Frauenrechtlerin des 19. Jahrhunderts . 656 pp. 2013. ISBN 978-3-0343-0704-8 14   Alexandra Merley Hill, Playing House: Motherhood, Intimacy, and Domestic Spaces in Julia Franck’s Fiction. 192 pp. 2012. ISBN 978-3-0343-0767-3 15   Christa Spreizer (ed.), Discovering Women’s History: German-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950) . Forthcoming. ISBN 978

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7 Contents Introduction ........................................................................................... 9 Lénia Marques, Maria Sofia Pimentel Biscaia and Glória Bastos Dynamics of Cultural Landscapes, Identities and Diffusion Processes ...................................................... 23 João Luís Jesus Fernandes Permeable Borderlines: Discovering an Ecocritical and Architectural Ecotone .................................................................. 37 Christian Hummelsund Voie Women’s Journeys to Portugal: Identitary

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Rising from Deep Places

Women's Lives and the Ecology of Voice and Silence

Elena Stone

Elena Stone’s provocative study of a diverse group of grassroots activists and artists gives new dimensions to a question that has long been an underlying theme in feminist scholarship: how do women find their voices? In this book that interweaves sociological analysis with personal experience, women’s history, and imagery from myth, religion, and the natural world, that question expands to encompass the very meaning of voice itself. Stone’s interviews, primarily with African-American, white working-class, and Jewish women, offer fresh and creative perspectives on gender, race, class, and culture. The resulting chapters explore the many faces of silence and examine the meaning of voice in relation to living in a body, building community, seeking justice, creating art, and affirming one’s connection with the earth. What emerges is a powerful new vision of women’s development that blends notions of personal and social transformation with a growing ecological and spiritual consciousness.
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were not available prior to deconstruction. Developing New Theories and/or Methodologies Feminists worked hard to secure places for women in the acad- emy. However, they discovered that, once within the academy, they struggled with the knowledges and frameworks they inher- ited, in both a teaching and research capacity (Threadgold 2000a). Some feminists found that the theoretical models and discipline- based structures of science, philosophy and history were them- selves invested in and contributed to women’s oppression. Such feminists considered the

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XI. Le résumé en anglais The Forgotten Revolution. The Emergence of the Feminine Writing in Poland in the Interwar Period (1918-1939). The interwar period (1918-1939) in Poland is of particular importance for the creation and development of the modern literary discourses and ideas. Notions of the women`s emancipation have their own specific place as the social transformation accompanied the political one after the country regained its independence in 1918. However, the history of Polish feminist aesthetics is almost missing and, according to

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relationship, or intersubjective connection, develops between Vreeland and Carr. This connection allows Vreeland to create a new rhetoric, or language, about art for women based on the relationship they share and Vreeland’s knowledge of Carr’s biography. In order to create this new rhetoric, authors must move outside the traditional and androcentric structures of art history to write about women artists. The medium of historical fiction allows the authors selected for this study to challenge traditional, and thus androcentric, art historical interpretations of women artists

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labour and the distinction between productive and public labour has started the process of re-evaluation of housework. Domestic labour debates are also among the first examples of men’s participation in feminist discourse. ←219 |  220→ In this chapter, women’s unpaid labour is taken into consideration through theoretical and empirical studies and women’s activities are evaluated within the perspective of feminist economics. In the first part, a brief history of the studies on women’s unpaid labour in Turkey along with unpaid domestic labour and other forms of

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labour and the distinction between productive and public labour has started the process of re-evaluation of housework. Domestic labour debates are also among the first examples of men’s participation in feminist discourse. ←219 |  220→ In this chapter, women’s unpaid labour is taken into consideration through theoretical and empirical studies and women’s activities are evaluated within the perspective of feminist economics. In the first part, a brief history of the studies on women’s unpaid labour in Turkey along with unpaid domestic labour and other forms of

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Coordinate Colleges for American Women | 1 → INTRODUCTION This book began when I discovered a claim that the college I attended never existed. In trying to square that assertion with my experience, I uncovered a compelling (and under-researched) narrative on the history of women in U.S. higher education that became the focus of this book. For four years I was an undergraduate at Long College for Women, a coordinate institution of Hanover—the first private college in Indiana. Although Hanover opened its doors to male students in 1827, Long began in 1947 and lasted

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, demonstrates that this was patently not the case; in fact, for Skillen, the interwar period is crucial for historians of women’s sport because it was in these years that ‘there were local, affordable and accessible sports facilities available to women across the United Kingdom for the first time’. 11 Thus sport was becoming open to women of all classes. This, coupled with the new affordability of fashionable sports clothing, meant that working-class women could and evidently did begin to participate. The use of oral histories has helped to recover the experiences of

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radical way to include the reproduction of workers. This article will show that social justice meant different things for dif- ferent strands within the international women’s movement. So far, attempts made to understand the positions taken by women have been based mainly on class and, therefore, do not tell the whole history. Among trade union women, the views were as divided as those in the international women’s movement at large. By the s, two points of views had developed within the movement about women and paid work: one focused on equal legis- lation for men

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of political dedication. Meanwhile, the aspect of “space” looks at not only a person’s geographical origins, but also the relevant social spaces, with their particular limits and available opportunities. From the perspective of gender history, the primary focus here is on the female parliamentarians, where it was first necessary to compile the relevant basic research data from a wide range of sources. Here, it is particularly interesting to examine where and how female parliamentarians from bourgeois parties had previously engaged in politics, before women were

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, recognition and respect, though with little success. There is a need to address this problem concisely and precisely. The subjection of women to economic manipulation, sexual exploitation, and political marginalization remain the thorn in the flesh of women’s liberation today, even in developed countries. The struggle for the liberation of women is not new or alien to the African people. Throughout African history, women have always fought for their freedom. This fact, though, has always yielded either nothing or no significant effect and was often short-lived. What is

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.), Discovering Women’s History: German-Speaking Journalists (1900–1950). 428 pp. 2014. ISBN 978-3-0343-0747-5 16 Abigail Dunn, Virtuous Victim or Sexual Predator? The Representation of the Widow in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century German Fiction. 256 pp. 2013. ISBN 978-3-0343-0776-5 17 Beatrix M. Brockman, “Nur fliegend fängt man Worte ein”. Eva Strittmatters Poetik. 265 pp. 2013. ISBN 978-3-0343-0948-6 18 Terrill John May, Popular Fiction in the Age of Bismarck: E. Marlitt and her Narrative Strategies. 391 pp. 2014. ISBN 978-3-0343-0950-9 19