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The Wine Goblet of Ḥāfeẓ

A Comparative Study of the Influence of Ḥāfeẓ on the Fifteenth-Century Classical Persian Poet Jāmī

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Bahman Solati

In this innovative book, Bahman Solati presents a comparative study of Ḥāfeẓ, an internationally renowned poet in the West, particularly in Germany, France, and the Anglophone world for the past 250 years, and his influence on the fifteenth-century classical Persian poet Jāmī.

Having played a key role on the stage of world literature and poetry, present available studies in the West suffer from a dearth of good research works on Ḥāfeẓ. This text aims to fill this gap, including coverage of commentaries, critical studies, and compilations of Ḥāfeẓ’s Divān, juxtaposing them with works and poetry of Jāmī to evaluate the influence of Ḥāfeẓ on this fifteenth-century mystic and poet. Comprehensive notes and an extensive bibliography are added bonuses of the book.

Devotees of Persian literature and those of Persian-speaking countries (Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan) will find this text of particular interest, as will academics interested in Persian poetry and literature. The usefulness of this research alone for students and scholars alike is of itself enough to make this book worth adding to any library.

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Chapter 4: Jāmī and Sufism

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Jāmī gradually became involved with the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order and began a continuous affiliation with it. He first met Khwāja Muḥammad Pārsā (d. 822/1415)1 during his childhood in Jām, the town where he was born. In Herat, he encountered Saʽd al-Dīn Kāshgharī (d. 860/1453).2 At this time Kāshgharī accepted the role and responsibility of becoming Jāmī’s formal spiritual guide on the path of Sufism. After Kāshgharī’s death, Jāmī began studying with Khwāja ʽUbayd-Ullāh Aḥrār (d. 892/1490), the distinguished Naqshbandī of the time.3 Jāmī and the Naqhshbandī order were well suited to each other; among the Sufi orders, the Naqshbandiyya claimed Abū Bakr as the first linkage in its principal chain of mystical lineage from the Prophet. Likewise, Jāmī was fundamentally Sunni in his approach and criticized the Shiʽa influences he perceived in other orders then active in and around Herat. Moreover, he welcomed the Naqshbandiyya’s tempering of many of the expected features of Sufism, such as the cultivation of fanciful states, the appreciation of mystical munificence known as karāmat, the distinctive form of dress, and residential seclusion in the Khānqāh.4 The Prophet requested of all Muslims that they observe moderation and respectfulness in their dress:

Promise me six things, and I shall promise you the Garden. Do not lie, honor your promise, be faithful to what is entrusted to...

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