The Politics of Protest
For more than 40 years politicians, activists, advocates, and individuals have been seeking ways to solve the problem of climate change. Governments and the United Nations have taken an economic path, while others seek solutions in the equality of climate justice. Taking the step from green consumer to the streets at climate summits and protest camps, as well as taking direct action recasts activists as everything from tree huggers, to domestic extremists, to ecoterrorists. Political policing and new legislation increasingly criminalizes environmental activism, supported by media reporting that recasts environmental activism as actions to be feared.
Why this has happened and how activists have learned to circumvent the media’s recasting is the story of Environmental Activisim and the Media: The Politics of Protest. Through media movements to persuade the moveable middle, high court challenges, and gatekeeping, activists have found ways to challenge media and political discourse.
This book identifies four key areas to tie together diverse sets of green governmentality, traditional media discourse, and activism: (1) environmental governance and green governmentality; (2) historical media discourse; (3) alternative communication infrastructures; and (4) local to the global. Using data from 50 interviews, archival research, and non-participatory observation from environmental activists from the UK, USA, and Australia, this text will show why protest is important in democratic political participation.
From activists to slacktivists, Environmental Activism and the Media: The Politics of Protest is for those with an interest in cultural, social, and political studies; democratic processes; climate and social justice; governmentality; and/or the study of environmental politics, human geography, communication, and sustainability.
Currency depends on your shipping address
- New York, Bern, Berlin, Bruxelles, Oxford, Wien, 2018. XVIII, 236 pp. 7 b/w ills.
- About the author(s)/editor(s)
- About the book
- This eBook can be cited
- List of Abbreviations
- Chapter 1. Introduction
- Environmental Activism, Politics and Traditional Media
- Governmentality and Green Governmentality: The Acceptable and Unacceptable Environmentalist
- The Rise of the Environmental Left
- Managing the Environment and Wilderness
- The Rise of the Environmental Right: Climate Sceptics and the Conservative Right
- The Climate Science Behind the Headlines
- Current Climate Debate, the Role of Traditional and Social Media
- Structure of the Book
- Chapter 2. Media Governance, EcoActivism and the Traditional Media
- Media, Culture, and the Environment—Revisited
- Authoritative Voices, Gatekeeping, and Activists as Primary Definers
- Media Language, Method, and the Politics of Protest
- Protest, Primary Definers and Discourse: An Example of the Reporting on Greenham Common Peace Camp
- The Voice of Radical Activists
- May Day, May Day Media Governance
- Chapter 3. Environmental Governance: The Role of Environmental Activism in Contentious Politics
- Green Governmentality: Managing the Environment through Persuasion and Discipline
- Case Studies: Economics and the Environment—A Stern Warning
- The Environment as a New Mode of European Managerialism
- Greenwashing and the Corporation
- Green Governmentality and an Uncertain Future for EcoActivists
- Chapter 4. Recasting Environmental Activism as Criminal Dissent: Soft Power, Political Policing and the Media
- Governance and the Organizing of a Political Space for Action
- Tactic of Law: Legislative Changes and the Criminalization of ecoActivism
- Reaching a Critical Mass
- Secret Police: Political Policing as a Technique of Dominance
- Chapter 5. “Don’t Glue Yourself to the Prime Minister!”—Millennial Media Movements and Alternative Activists’ Communication Strategies
- Early Media Movements: Greenpeace
- Millennial Media Movements: A Balance between Openness and Protectionism
- Millennial Media Movements: Turning the Tables with Technology
- Countering Media Reporting Attempts to Divide and Rule
- Conclusion: Gatekeeping Beyond the Movement
- Chapter 6. Activism is More Than Hits and Likes: Social Media Strategies and the Moveable Middle
- How Activists Benefit from Changing Media Habits
- Network Power, Network Journalism, and Functions
- Changes in Media Practice: A Return of the Protester’s Voice?
- Citizen Journalism and Capacity Building in the Community
- Going Online to Get Offline
- Chapter 7. Heterotopias: Retaining Power in the Space of Protest
- Square People and Temporary Autonomous Zones
- Heterotopic Space and Political Power
- Space and Liminoid Practices of Protest
- Community Outreach and Protection of the Protest Space
- Insiders and Outsiders: When a Heterotopic Fails
- Fences and Fear: Surveillance and Space
- Chapter 8. Politics of Protest: Environmental Activism in a Heated World
- Conference of the Parties—A Potted History
- Paris 2015—Planning to Draw Redlines
- Before CoP21—Plans and Paris
- Movement Building and Reclaim the Future
- REDLINES—A Movement Building Project Beyond Paris
- Chapter 9. Conclusion: Environmental Activism and the Media
- The Future Politics of Protest?
- Space, Power and Protest
- Revisiting and Looking Forward
- A Final Word
Chapter 6. Activism is More Than Hits and Likes: Social Media Strategies and the Moveable Middle
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ACTIVISM IS MORE THAN HITS AND LIKES
Social Media Strategies and the Moveable Middle
In terms of media, it’s clear for movements in general, or all social movements. We need a massive increase in the quality and quantity of citizen media; we need to saturate the airwaves.
—Interview with activist Richard Hering (September, 2011)
Social movements, especially ecoActivists and Global Justice movements are often early adopters of new and social media platforms, and had some success by combining the media movement concept with social media and online presence (circa. 2005). Social media platforms exploded onto the media stage, and activists were some of the first to understand that these new platforms could enable them to circumnavigate gatekeeping practices of the traditional media. In just three years, one of the first social media sites My Space (2003), was soon followed by Facebook and Flickr a year later (2004) and by 2006 microblogging site twitter.
With new technologies (smartphones, laptops, and handheld computers) also changed how we consume traditional news media. With more choice of where and when to consumer and produce news, smartphones were providing instant news access, with the first iPhone (2007) and Android (2008) making news portable and accessible anywhere with a 3G, 4G or Wi-Fi signal. The technology combined with new platforms meant social movements ← 153 | 154 → and individual activists could instantly upload news footage of mobilizations. Social media and the internet...
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