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The Profound Limitations of Knowledge


Fred Leavitt

The Profound Limitations of Knowledge explores the limitations of knowledge and argues that neither reasoning nor direct or indirect observations can be trusted. We cannot even assign probabilities to claims of what we can know. Furthermore, for any set of data, there are an infinite number of possible interpretations. Evidence suggests that we live in a participatory universe—that is, our observations shape reality.
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Appendix 2: History Myths



These enduring myths about American history were taken on 10/1/17 from

George Washington did not have wooden teeth. He had dentures made out of metal and ivory.

Baseball was not born in Cooperstown, New York, and Abner Doubleday did not invent it. Doubleday wasn’t even a fan. Baseball was the brainchild of New Yorker Alexander Joy Cartwright, a volunteer firefighter and bank clerk.

Christopher Columbus did not discover the United States. Even if Native Americans aren’t counted, Columbus was still 500 years too late. Norse explorer Leif Erikson landed on these shores during the 10th century.

Witches were not burned at the stake at Salem. Between February, 1692 and May, 1693, nearly 200 people were accused of practicing witchcraft including the elderly, homeless, and a 4-year-old girl. Most were jailed, 19 were hanged, and a 71-year-old man was crushed with heavy stones. But nobody got burned. Not one.

Cowboys did not wear cowboy hats. The most popular headgear among 19th century gunslingers was a bowler, sometimes called a derby.

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