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Composing Legacies

Testimonial Rhetoric in Nineteenth-Century Composition


Christopher Carter and Russel K. Durst

In 2015, Professor Emerita Lucille M. Schultz donated to the University of Cincinnati her set of composition materials gathered from fifteen libraries and collections around the country. With 350 entries ranging from 1785 to 1916, the collection includes picture books for early primary schools, grammar textbooks, student writing, and advanced rhetoric textbooks for undergraduates. The documents afford a thrilling glimpse into nineteenth-century ways of thinking and teaching, highlighting practices we would today identify as prewriting, collaborative invention, freewriting, and object-oriented pedagogy. Composing Legacies relates these pedagogies to expressions of social class, nationalism, and public engagement that run throughout the Victorian era and the Gilded Age. Early chapters show how writing and grammar handbooks aimed to reproduce social hierarchies; later ones show how textbook authors aimed to mitigate lecture-style pedagogy with attention to student backgrounds, personal interests, economic aspirations, and presumed audiences. Often, those authors demonstrated a pronounced interest in national unity, but not without exception. Little-known Confederate textbooks took the ideology of unity to be a form of Northern aggression, promoting the maintenance of state and local traditions through their classroom exercises and sample passages. Composition scholars who see the nineteenth-century as a period of skills-and-drills teaching, devoid of explicit political concern, will find surprises in the archival texts’ testimonies about national crises and civic participation. Those scholars will also find that the “social turn” in writing and rhetoric, however recent as a historical framework, has been underway for more than two hundred years.
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Chapter One Testimony of the Senses: Materialist Pedagogy in Nineteenth-Century Composition Textbooks (Christopher Carter)


christopher carter

End with matter that concentrates the effect of the whole.

—John Franklin Genung, Outlines of Rhetoric: Embodied in Rules, Illustrative Examples, and a Progressive Course of Prose Composition (248)

Rhetoric begins where grammar ends.

—T. Whiting Bancroft, A Method of English Composition (4)

As twenty-first century scholars of composition and rhetoric consider the multisensory character of communication, and as they study the persuasive dimensions of nonhuman phenomena such as writing technologies and spaces of delivery, the field comes to encompass much more than teaching verbal argument. This expansion of focus characterizes Laura Micciche’s investigations of pathos, Jody Shipka’s experiments with eclectic modes and materials, and Laurie Gries’s studies of how visual rhetoric “moves” in affective and geographic terms—all of which reflect a growing interest in meaning-making that reaches beyond words. But however fresh those topics may feel to researchers in the 2020s, the Lucille M. Schultz Nineteenth-Century Composition Archive suggests that they are not exactly new, or at least that their novelty has a lineage in the very era many thinkers construct as incompatible with their field’s convictions. ←27 | 28→

The archive bears the record of that lineage, affording scholars a view of intellectual trends that long preceded the field’s consolidation in academic journals and graduate programs. Those trends arose, in part, from nineteenth-century textbooks about how to teach, how to write, and how to teach writing. Unless otherwise noted, these primary source materials are...

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