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Tertullian’s Use of the Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and Jude

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Mark A. Frisius

In Tertullian’s Use of the Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and Jude, Mark A. Frisius establishes that Tertullian (a third-century theologian) only used the Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews, and 1 Peter, although he at least knew of Jude. It is further demonstrated that he had no knowledge of James or 2 Peter, which has a distinct bearing on the emergence of the New Testament canon. Tertullian interprets these five texts in various ways, but always with an eye toward confrontational discourse. The author assesses Tertullian’s varying interpretive principles and also considers the effects of Montanism on his interpretive procedures. In conclusion, Frisius demonstrates that the Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews, and 1 Peter provided Tertullian with significant material for his theological controversies. This book, in addition to being a resource for scholars, is also useful in senior level and graduate courses on ancient biblical interpretation.

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Preface ............................................................................................................................ vii Series Editor‘s Preface .................................................................................................. ix List of Abbreviations .................................................................................................... xi Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 Part One: The Known Books ..................................................................... 5 Chapter One: Does Tertullian Know the Books? .................................................... 7 Chapter Two: The Textual Question ........................................................................ 21 Part Two: The Practice of Interpretation ................................................. 39 Chapter Three: General Interpretive Principles ...................................................... 43 Chapter Four: Pre-Montanist and Montanist Interpretation ................................. 63 Chapter Five: Interpretation of Opponents ............................................................. 71 Part Three: Theological Development and Controversy .......................... 85 Chapter Six: The Practice of the Christian Life ....................................................... 87 Chapter Seven: Doctrinal Theology ........................................................................ 103 Conclusion .............................................................................................. 121 Appendix One: Possible Citations of the Pastoral Epistles, Hebrews, James, 1 Peter, 2 Peter, and Jude ...................................................................... 127 Appendix Two: Uses of Apostolus, i ......................................................................... 139 Appendix Three: Pre-Montanist and Montanist Works ....................................... 165 Notes ............................................................................................................................ 167 Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 227

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