Tourism Practices, Heritage Policies, and Anthropological Sites
Chapter V: Marketing Paradise: The Bali Tourism Project 77
Chapter Five Marketing Paradise: The Bali Tourism Project Following the Japanese invasion and occupation of the Dutch East Indies in early 1942, Bali’s expatriate community of writers, academics, tourist promo- ters, and colonial agents fled to Australia or were interned in concentration camps in east and central Java. After the Pacific war ended in 1945, the island was engulfed in the conflict between returning Dutch forces and independence fighters. A peace treaty was not signed until 1949. By the early Fifties the marketing of Bali as Indonesia’s paradise island resumed (Republic of Indone- sia, 1957). These early promotion efforts culminated in the opening of the Bali Beach Hotel at Sanur, financed by Indonesia’s President Sukarno with Japanese war reparations. Sukarno was overthrown in a 1965 military coup which resulted in the death of hundreds of thousands of people. The new government under President Suharto declared a “New Order”, under which foreign investment was encouraged and party politics restricted. Tourism was also officially proclaimed a key tool of nation-building (K. Adams 1997: 157). This decree led to a 1971 World Bank-funded “Master Plan” for the development of Bali as an international tourist destination, a plan implemented beginning in 1975 as the Bali Tourism Project. As part of this project the airport near the island’s administrative capital, Denpassar, was upgraded to serve international arrivals, visa requirements for foreign tourists were eased, and tax incentives were granted for foreign investment in the tourist sector (Lansing 1995: 115). Most importantly, a spatial zone for...
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